Paleo Bread™ was inspired by the Paleolithic diet due to it’s health and dietary benefits.  Those who follow the Paleo lifestyle cut out all grains and eat what our native hunters and gatherers ate many years ago.  It’s a food plan based on lean meats, seafood, nuts, fruits, and fresh vegetables.  We created two versions of Paleo Bread which meet any and all requirements in order to be kind to practically any diet.  Both breads are healthy, low calorie, gluten free and grain free.  The Almond variety and the Coconut variety are equally tasty and both offer their own unique benefits.
Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human by Richard Wrangham. This book argues that the ease of digestion and the added nutritional value available in cooked food was the key behind the explosion of human intelligence. (Cooking gelatinizes starch, denatures protein, and softens all foods, permitting more complete digestion and energy extraction. As a result, the food processing apparatus shrinks, freeing energy to support a larger brain.) He then suggests that cooking led to what eventually became marriage and the sexual division of labor. The two most helpful reviews at Amazon get into great detail. The reviews average to 4+ stars.
Cancer: Disease of Civilization? An anthropological and historical study by Vilhjalmur Stefansson. This classic shows what happens before and after tribes were "civilized." Covers day-to-day experience of Eskimo life. Published in 1960. Used copies are available at a steep price. To read it get it on inter-library loan. Another of his many books My Life with the Eskimo (New Edition) is available.
I just made version #2, and it was delicious. My pan was slightly larger, but I kept the 30 minute cooking time. It came out more golden brown on the outside, but it was perfectly moist. This is SO much tastier than store loaves, and I love slicing it thick. I greased my pan with butter and coconut oil and lined it with wax paper on the bottom, and it slipped right out.
This is the best grain-free bread recipe I have ever tried. I didn’t have the loaf pan so I used one of my small casserole dishes and it came out square and a little darker around the edges. I used 1 1/2oz. of coconut oil and mixed it with 1/2oz. of melted butter and it came out really moist. It also came out dark like whole wheat bread, so I am assuming that I used just a little too much flax meal. I love you for taking the time to perfect this!!! I’m thinking of making a spice bread next time. Let you know if it works!!
I love this bread, and so do my German, bread-loving children! Hearty, rich German bread is the best in the world so that’s no small praise. I have a regular glass loaf pan, and adapt the recipe to make a full-size loaf. I add 1 extra egg (very large) and increase other ingredients 25%. Baking time is usually 5-10 minutes longer, although I reduce the temperature to 325 after it begins to brown to compensate for the glass pan. Topped with butter or pumpkin seed butter, this is my 3-year-old son’s favorite “treat” ever! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U63RJiOS3TE

Julian Bakery made Paleo Bread™ to fulfill the craving for bread while you are living a Paleo lifestyle free from processed foods. Paleo Bread utilizes the highest quality ingredients.  This bread provides the protein and fiber your body needs to satisfy hunger while helping your body to perform at its peak.  We love The Paleo Bread and hope you do too!
Hi! I’ve been looking for a good paleo bread substitute recipe lately and this one looks perfect and then some! I was just wondering if it’s lower in calories than regular bread as I’ve been trying to watch my calorie intake recently and I know almond flour is a little higher than regular flour. Does anyone happen to know what the calorie count is for one loaf? Thanks in advance!
Woot woot for AB bars!!! Yep I still say it. If we if we keep saying it long enough it will probably become cool again…just like floral curtains???? I appreciate how you give all the nut butters their proper chance to be showcased, no playing mess-prone goop favorites. But since today is about AB I have to admit I had an almond butter phase too actually. It was more about excessive almond butter eating though, not making???? (Have you ever tried Justin’s vanilla AB? Probs not since you make your own. But I’m pretty sure there is crack (or frosting) in there, it’s too good.) I tried making my own once, overheated the food processor, never tried again. And honestly just the thought of that goopy greasy cleanup is enough to make me run to the store…I admire your lack of baking laziness???? Buying it also means one less step between me and me shoving THESE in my face, and I am all for speeding up that!! A batch of these and the PB ones so I can do a side-by-side please! And if ever you do go back to cray 500 cookies a day BB, I call at least 50 of them, kay? Love ya❤️❤️ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jqjDrTy_n5c
Hi. I purchased the fox run pan just to be able to make this bread. Although I like the taste, both times I’ve made this the bread has a large uncooked section in the middle. The second time I made sure to cook for the longer time and inserted a knife to check, which came out clean. Although the uncooked section is smaller, it is still there. I followed the recipe and do not know what went wrong. Any suggestions?
One larger randomized controlled trial followed 70 post-menopausal Swedish women with obesity for two years, who were placed on either a Paleo diet or a Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) diet. [7] The Paleo diet provided 30% of total calories from protein, 40% fat (from mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats) and 30% carbohydrates. It included lean meats, fish, eggs, vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, avocado, and olive oil. The NNR diet provided less protein and fat but more carbohydrate with 15% protein, 25-30% fat, and 55-60% carbohydrates, including foods similar to the Paleo diet but also low-fat dairy products and high-fiber grains. Both groups significantly decreased fat mass and weight circumference at 6 and 24 months, with the Paleo diet producing greater fat loss at 6 months but not at 24 months. Triglyceride levels decreased more significantly with the Paleo diet at 6 and 24 months than the NNR diet.
Jump up ^ Ramsden, C.; Faurot, K.; Carrera-Bastos, P.; Cordain, L.; De Lorgeril, M.; Sperling, L. (2009). "Dietary Fat Quality and Coronary Heart Disease Prevention: A Unified Theory Based on Evolutionary, Historical, Global, and Modern Perspectives". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 11 (4): 289–301. doi:10.1007/s11936-009-0030-8. PMID 19627662.
Hi Eva, That’s awesome that you are helping your son this way. I haven’t tried this with other tools, but you could probably use either the blender or the food processor. The key is to pulse in step 5, not just constantly blend, so that the whites don’t fully break down. Other than that, it should be pretty similar. As for the yolks, if you don’t want to make creme brulee, I usually just put a couple extras into an omelet (or breakfast casserole, or any other dish requiring cooked eggs) mixed with whole eggs.
I accidentally forgot mine when my “timer” didn’t remind me. I remembered it and pulled it out after it had been in the oven an extra 13 minutes. It was almost perfect. I also just whisked vigorously as my processor is missing since the last move. I will definitely make it again, but I will likely play with it a bit as I am hoping to find a few versions to make regularly to replace my family’s usual bread. Even our most finicky eater is loving these recipes so far. Thank you!

This bread is so so good! I love that it doesn’t have Cassava flour, which upsets my stomach a little. It was so easy and the recipe is also pretty forgiving. I had a crazy two year old (who I thought would like to “help”) and an infant while I was making this and ended up spilling some of the flours and I didn’t measure very accurately and it still came out amazing! Thank you for the recipe!


Overall, the diet is high in protein, moderate in fat (mainly from unsaturated fats), low-moderate in carbohydrate (specifically restricting high glycemic index carbohydrates), high in fiber, and low in sodium and refined sugars. [2] The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including the omega-3 fats EPA and DHA) come from marine fish, avocado, olive oil, and nuts and seeds.

When you are separating the eggs if you use the method of pouring the egg from one half of the shell to the other you have to be extremely careful because the sharp shell can easily break the yolk. There are tools that you can purchase that will cradle the yolk and let the white run into a separate bowl. Or, you can use your hands. You need to make sure that your hands are extremely clean and fresh from being washed. Break the egg into one hand and let the white slip between your slightly separate fingers. The yolk will settle into your hand and the white will slip off into the bowl.
Transfer bread dough to prepared loaf pan, using a wet spatula to even out the top. Cover with a kitchen towel and place in a warm draft-free space for 50-60 minutes until the dough has risen just past the top of the loaf pan. How long it takes depends on your altitude, temperature and humidity- so keep an eye out for it every 15 minutes or so. And keep in mind that if you use a larger loaf pan it won't rise past the top. 

I am so happy to have found this delicious and easy recipe. I used a regular sized loaf pan and baked it about 5 minutes less time since the loaf is thinner. Also I think I will put a piece of parchment on the bottom of the pan next time as it stuck to the pan a little bit. I thought it had a kind of like a cornbread texture. It is so good though, I believe I will be eating some of this every day for the rest of my life. Can’t wait to try some of the suggested variations!


photo sources: cavemen elephant hunt, caveman cooking over fire, cavemen hunt paleo bear, milk truck logo, darth vader vendor, storm trooper tomato, lego cook, chef and lego pig, lego explorer, lego muffin, lego bread and carbs, frozen caveman grok lego, lego clock, lego caveman forging for food, caveman with wheel, darth vader and ostrich lego, easing into water lego, lego man with pasta https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p9nD6DEQ1-U
Chris Masterjohn has Cholesterol: Your Life Depends on It!, another web site pointing out that the war on cholesterol and the push to put people on statins is misguided. The site argues it is actually polyunsaturated fats, not saturated fats or cholesterol, that contribute to heart disease, cancer, liver damage, and aging. He also has a popular blog.
I’m excited to hear that! If I have a chance to do any recipe testing myself, I will let you know if I come up with anything worthwhile . . .Staying tuned and looking forward to it! Is there any way for me to be notified of your replies to my comment(s)? I had to come back to this page to see this, so just wondering (and I do have the box clicked about “notify me of follow-up comments by email”). Thanks again!
Five roots, both bitter and sweet, are staples in the Hiwi diet, as are palm nuts and palm hearts, several different fruits, a wild legume named Campsiandra comosa, and honey produced by several bee species and sometimes by wasps. A few Hiwi families tend small, scattered and largely unproductive fields of plantains, corn and squash. At neighboring cattle ranches in a town about 30 kilometers away, some Hiwi buy rice, noodles, corn flour and sugar. Anthropologists and tourists have also given the Hiwi similar processed foods as gifts (see illustration at top).
The Dietitian's Guide to Eating Bugs by Daniel Calder is a comprehensive guide to the nutritional content of insects. He believes insect breeding and consumption are important elements sustainable living, particularly when it comes to complementing foraged plant material with meat products. Numerous insects contain nutrients similar to those found in more conventional livestock, except the feed to conversion ratio is much higher and they're much cheaper to breed. You can find the book at scribd. Also available in e-book format for $35.
I love this recipe and I like to tweak things. I came up with a tweak to make banana bread. Since holiday baking is my weakness and I had an almost suicidal reaction to wheat (I really know I’m allergic now) I wanted some banana bread. I subbed 1 cup of almond flour to walnut flour, omitted the ACV, added sweetener to taste, 1 tsp vanilla, 1 tsp pumpkin pie spice (sugar free) and 1 mashed banana. I LOVE banana so I also added a little banana flavoring. Baked up to a heavenly bread that I can eat without bloating and severe mood reactions!! I LOVE this site for recipes!! My next attempt will be either pumpkin bread or orange cranberry. Makes a great “I NEED SWEET” snack or breakfast as I’m zooming out the door. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gl05lHuUPus

Made this yesterday and it looked/tasted beautiful! Did not do anything special (whipping the white, creaming the butter, etc) .. just folded gently and it was just a beautiful golden color. I topped it with sesame seeds because the flax seeds had already been put away. I put the dough into two mini-loaf pans and they fit perfectly. Perfect way to get my bread cravings with gest. diabetes and got two thumbs up from my diabetic dad, too, who eventually stole my other loaf! Will be making again and again. Thank you!
Hi Kim, thank you for your feedback. I think it’s interesting that the recipe turned out well using coconut flour instead. I would love it if you could post a photo of your bread here in the comments so I can see it. Substituting coconut flour for almond flour is tricky, and I think it worked out for you because you cut the amount of flour added in half. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcHTNdMiVdA
Alyssa, one more thing. Both the bowl and the beaters need to be spotlessly clean. If there is one hint of oil anywhere the whites will not beat properly. Nicole is correct about not using a plastic bowl. Plastic will even absorb oil to say nothing of the microscopic amounts that get into the surface when it’s scratched. When baking it is always best to use a metal or glass bowl for all of your mixing.
I have made this now about 10 times. The first time I made them too thin. I use two muffin top pans (6 wells in each) and I filled 8 the first time. Then I went to six and it was perfect. My grandson is so happy we have bread again. Everyone loves it slathered in kerrygold butter. I make a double batch to get 12 pieces. I also make a single batch with garlic, extra salt and Parmesan cheese in the batter. I sprinkled some cheese on top of the batter before baking. The garlic bread was so delicious! Thanks for a super simple delicious recipe that I can make in five minutes.
My stomach has been very upset lately because of grains, but when my stomach is burning and nauseated, bread or crackers is what I need to settle it, which I knew was a big no no (wheat is what made me sick). Then I stumbled on this recipe and all I can say is “Praise the Lord!”. Thank you so very much for sharing this. I made my own almond/sunflower seed butter and used chai meal in lieu of the flax and it turned out moist, fluffy, and surprisingly tasty! This blows away the gluten-free bread that I was eating for the past few years (I have tried them all) and the fact that it’s yeast and grain free is absolute heaven because I have candida and both mess me up. Thank you, thank you, thank you!!!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kyZ95ohpKjs
Overall, the diet is high in protein, moderate in fat (mainly from unsaturated fats), low-moderate in carbohydrate (specifically restricting high glycemic index carbohydrates), high in fiber, and low in sodium and refined sugars. [2] The monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including the omega-3 fats EPA and DHA) come from marine fish, avocado, olive oil, and nuts and seeds.
I had the same problem. Everything blended beautifully, rose in oven, then fell. Toothpick came out clean after 45 min of baking. I let it cool and then cut into it this morning and it has raw spots throughout the loaf. I am so disappointed because I killed a dozen eggs to make it and really don’t want to do it again. I wonder if the oven needs to be warmer and the cooking time needs to be increased?
As University of California-Davis food chemist Bruce German told Pollan in an interview, “You could not survive on wheat flour. But you can survive on bread.” Microbes start to digest the grains, breaking them down in ways that free up more of the healthful parts. If bread is compared to another method of cooking flour—basically making it into porridge—”bread is dramatically more nutritious,” says Pollan.
Hey Deena, I also live in Kansas City and I’ve made this bread 2 times, also making it right now. The first time it came out perfect. The second time it didn’t rise as mush as the first but the bread was still better then any other. I always make sure the house is (hot) and everything is done by the stove 😉 I make it when no one is home but me… You can do it!!
I just made the bread above and sadly for me LOLOl it was only 2′ high I am wondering if that is because i mixed it in my Mixmaster not a food processor it tastes yummy but I’m not sure why it didn’t rise higher. the batter was very thick when I put it in the loaf tin Oh well I wil have to try it again LOLOl we will eat it fast as it tastes soooo good
Thanks for taking the time to post the Metric measures Pat. I’ve just made my first loaf, which is ok but I misread the ingredients and only put 1/2 tsp of baking powder in the mix ..duh! There’s another one baking right now with the correct amount in . Really looking forward to it. I’m going to slice it up and freeze it in portions so I can take out what I need and toast it. The only downside for me is the almond flour and coconut flour is very expensive in the uk. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XSGRd5Ve1zI
I made this bread the other day following the recipe to the T, and although it tasted delicious, I did have some problems with it. I used the same size pan and my bread came out to be about half as tall as whats pictured. Also, the first time I took it out of the oven it was still raw inside even after cooking for quite a long time, so I had to put it back in. This wouldnt be a problem, except I found that when it was finally all cooked through, It had such a thick crust on top that I couldn’t cut it without it crumbling all to pieces. Any suggestions on how to get it to rise more and how to prevent the ultra-thick crust from forming on top?
I am studying nutrition and, like you, understand that many foods labeled as paleo weren’t actually consumed by our paleolithic ancestors thousands of years ago. I guarantee elana knows that as well. Labeling a recipe paleo is an easy way to categorize posts so those eating a paleo, or grain and dairy free whole foods diet, know it’s for them. Hope that clears up some of your frustration and or misunderstanding about paleo recipes. enjoy!
Palm nuts and heart (Mauritia flexuosa)Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis)Wild root "Yatsiro" (Canna edulis)Red Brocket deer (Mazama americana)Wild root "No'o" (Dioscorea)Wild root "Oyo" (Banisteriopsis)Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)Guava (Psidium guava)Yellow-spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis)Wild root "Hewyna" (Calathea allouia)Mata Mata turtle (Chelus fimbriatus)Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)Silver Mylosomma (Mylossoma duriventre)Iguana (Iguana iguana)Iguana (Iguana iguana)Orange (Citrus x sinensis)Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaja ajaja)Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaja ajaja)Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu)Wild rabbit (Sylvilagus varynaensis)Piranha (Serrasalmus)Trahira (Hoplias malabaricus)Collared anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla)Gold Tegu (Tupinambis teguixin)Mangoes (Mangifera)Wild legume "Chiga" (Campsiandra comosa)South American catfish (Pseudoplatystoma)Charichuelo (Garcinia madruno)Yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulata)Caiman (Caiman crocodilus)

I also have had the “raw tunnel” of dough in the middle – TWICE now. I’ve followed the recipe to a “t,” except for the name brand Magic Line Pan (I do have the correct size pan though). Thanks for the tip to cover w/foil. I did it after the 30 min, but I’ll try it from the start. I also had added an extra 20 minutes. Strange ours turn out this way after reading how perfect others’ turn out?! Thanks gals! Happy baking!
Ostensibly, Grok is "a rather typical hunter–gatherer" living before the dawn of agriculture—an "official primal prototype." He is the poster-persona for fitness author and blogger Mark Sisson's "Primal Blueprint"—a set of guidelines that "allows you to control how your genes express themselves in order to build the strongest, leanest, healthiest body possible, taking clues from evolutionary biology (that's the primal part)." These guidelines incorporate many principles of what is more commonly known as the Paleolithic, or caveman, diet, which started to whet people's appetites as early as the 1960s and is available in many different flavors today. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JaMQfQK1_i8

Hi Jen, It sounds like it needed to bake for longer – this is why it sunk and was still moist. The timing varies by ovens and even different pans. I hope you’ll try it again and just keep it in there for longer. You can cover the top if it starts to brown too much. For the one you made, depending on how moist it was in the middle, you may be able to salvage it somewhat by pan frying the slices.
My Low-Carb Cornbread recipe is made with 6 ingredients in a round cast-iron skillet. Although it tastes like cornbread, there isn’t a speck of corn in this bread. As I mentioned, I’ve been on a grain-free diet since 2001 and corn is not on the menu for me. We serve Cornbread at Thanksgiving each year, and throughout the year. Adults and children alike give this low-carb bread recipe a thumbs up!
I just put this bread together and I think something is missing in the ingredients? It did not “pour” into bread pan as recipe suggests, it was more like a crumbly dough. I went over my steps again and again and can’t find any steps or measurements I missed. Has anyone made this yet? I have it in the oven any way as I’m not very good at figuring out what to do, so I hope it turns out! Elana, I am truly enjoying your almond flour cook book and your website is so inspiring! Thanx!
Sometimes the terms almond flour and almond meal are used interchangeably. Some people refer to almond flour if it’s made from blanched almonds and is finely ground, and some people refer to almond meal when the almonds are coarsely ground and made from almonds with the skin on. The majority of cookbooks, chefs, and commercial brands don’t differentiate between the two terms, and there are currently no reliable standards for naming the product flour or meal. The best almond flour for baking in my opinion is one that has been ground very fine. But even those may give you different results because all almonds are different. Taste is different and some are oilier. After doing some tests, I found the best brands for baking are by Honeyville, Welbees and Nuts(.com). Hope this helps.

I made this bread about a week ago and it turned out great. I used an 8″ x 4″ x 2-1/4″ disposable aluminum loaf pan that I got at the 99 cent store. The size pan was perfect and the loaf turned out great. I also used Extra Large Eggs, so I only used 4 of them instead of 5. I love the texture and it toasts up very nicely and I have used it as sandwich bread. Thanks for the great recipe.
Life Without Bread: How a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life by Christian B. Allan, Wolfgang Lutz. It is based on Dr. Lutz's work with thousands of patients in Austria. It deals with the health issues connected to high carb consumption. It is basically an English version and update of Dr. Lutz's 1967 book with the same title: Leben ohne Brot. He recommends eating only 72 grams of carbohydrates, and an unlimited amount of fat. And provides evidence as to why this is the healthiest diet. Read the review at Amazon by Todd Moody (it will be first!). See excerpts from his earlier edition: Dismantling a Myth: The Role of Fat and Carbohydrates in our Diet https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m2FnMGEOxiU

I make three loaves of Paleo 2.0 bread and Paleo Rye bread every two weeks and they both freeze well. Thanks for these recipes. All of our children and grandchildren love them. We are moving from Illinois to Colorado Springs and are worried that the high altitude will create problems. Hoping that we will find by testing how to recreate these delicious breads.
This bread is amazing! My family is new to paleo and my husband said he would like to have a bread substitute that would go with eggs. I baked my first loaf this morning and it came out perfect. Do need to use a smaller pan as it didn’t rise as high as a regular loaf of bread; however, that’s ok because it’s automatic portion control. The bread is delicious and was a hit with my husband. A definite keeper for the recipe file.
When following the Paleo diet, you will cut the trans fats and the omega-6 polyunsaturated fats in your diet and increase the healthful monounsaturated and omega-3 fats that were the mainstays of our ancestors. Recent large population studies, known as meta analyses, show that saturated fats have little or no adverse effects upon cardiovascular disease risk.
I made this bread and really do like it~ we are paleo and needed a good bread recipe. What I am wondering is how the picture you have of this bread is so light and yellow colored? After making it, the bread is dark and even has a green tint to it over time. The texture and taste are both perfect, but it doesn’t look appetizing~ trying to figure out how mine looks so different than the picture of your bread. I noticed that the pictures other people posted also showed dark bread as well. I used all of the recommended ingredients exactly- but it does not come out light or yellowy. Any recommendations?
This is such an excellent versatile recipe and definitely my favorite gluten-free bread recipe. I find that I’m perfectly satisfied using almond meal that of almond flour. And it has adapted well to any other kind of nut or seed meal I have tried so far. Last week I used all pecan meal is my favorite today taste wise. I also often mix half of another nut meal with half almond meal. Second favorite was half almond meal with half sunflower seed meal the taste was delicious. However the sunflower seed meal did turn green like I did read. . . Morning I may Kallof with all walnut meal and I’m sure it will turn out cause of all the work you did in creating this recipe. Also I never use a food processor I mix it all by hand and it still turns out.
Question – Baking soda has too much sodium for me – I don’t think I can substitute double the baking powder instead (gluten free and sodium free Hain brand Featherweight)- looking on the label it says it cannot be substituted for baking soda and I would assume that is because it is chemically formulated differently than a normal baking powder. Wondering what else I could use in place of the baking soda – I need a low sodium alternative. I made this recipe and it is wonderful and would love to continue to make it in a low sodium version. Has anyone ever tried the low sodium baking soda – Ener-G brand ? Would I still use the cider vinegar?
OMG…Could your FABULOUS coconut palm syrup/recipe be used/considered as the ultra-expensive COCONUT NECTAR?..If so…this is sheer BRILLIANCE as it has provided a needed “Eureka” moment for me in my quest for a low glycemic substitute for agave or honey..Is the resulting syrup suitable for use in this fashion in baking?…Thank you so much for contributing your wonderful idea.
Several examples of recent and relatively speedy human evolution underscore that our anatomy and genetics have not been set in stone since the stone age. Within a span of 7,000 years, for instance, people adapted to eating dairy by developing lactose tolerance. Usually, the gene encoding an enzyme named lactase—which breaks down lactose sugars in milk—shuts down after infancy; when dairy became prevalent, many people evolved a mutation that kept the gene turned on throughout life. Likewise, the genetic mutation responsible for blue eyes likely arose between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. And in regions where malaria is common, natural selection has modified people's immune systems and red blood cells in ways that help them resist the mosquito-borne disease; some of these genetic mutations appeared within the last 10,000 or even 5,000 years. The organisms with which we share our bodies have evolved even faster, particularly the billions of bacteria living in our intestines. Our gut bacteria interact with our food in many ways, helping us break down tough plant fibers, but also competing for calories. We do not have direct evidence of which bacterial species thrived in Paleolithic intestines, but we can be sure that their microbial communities do not exactly match our own. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lTSvNt_hZo
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