The Paleo concept is new for most people and this newness can spark many questions. We like people to not only read about and educate themselves on this topic but also to “get in and do it.” Experience is perhaps the best teacher and often cuts through any confusion surrounding this way of eating. Now, all that considered, there are still some common counter arguments to the Paleo diet that happen with sufficient frequency that a whole paper was written on it. Enjoy: Evolutionary Health Promotion. A consideration of common counter-arguments.
I was curious about the pan and found a very interesting 1 out of 5 star review on Amazon. The customer who purchased and used the pan not only got a metallic taste in her(?) first loaf, but the bread was also tinged green. She had to throw the bread away. I do not know if it would get better with use and washings, but she gave a good enough argument for me to avoid this buying this particular pan.
Here is your chance to make pumpkin bagels that can help usher in fall, and also are great any time of the year. They are made with real pumpkin of course, as well as a host of additional ingredients to make them taste great without being bad for you in any way. Just be sure to follow the Paleo instructions, as this is a multi-purpose recipe but they’ve included the necessary substitutes to keep it Paleo. These taste great with grass-fed butter on them, and you can even try using a Paleo-friendly cream cheese if you feel up to it.
I wrote a book called The Paleo Solution which went on to become a New York Times Bestseller. This book incorporates the latest, cutting edge research from genetics, biochemistry and anthropology to help you look, feel and perform your best. I am a research biochemist who traded in his lab coat and pocket protector for a whistle and a stopwatch to become one of the most sought after strength and conditioning coaches in the world. With my unique perspective as both scientist and coach you will learn how simple nutrition, exercise and lifestyle changes can radically change your appearance and health for the better.
Hi there. The bottom right features a bread that almost looks like it is made of poppy seeds. It’s a different color than expected. Maybe chia…So I was curious which recipe it could be. I may have missed it, but I don’t see the pictures captioned with their corresponding recipes and I looked at all the recipes and I don’t see that particular picture on the linked pages. Now I have to know which one that could be! Please let me know ; )
I made this bread the other day following the recipe to the T, and although it tasted delicious, I did have some problems with it. I used the same size pan and my bread came out to be about half as tall as whats pictured. Also, the first time I took it out of the oven it was still raw inside even after cooking for quite a long time, so I had to put it back in. This wouldnt be a problem, except I found that when it was finally all cooked through, It had such a thick crust on top that I couldn’t cut it without it crumbling all to pieces. Any suggestions on how to get it to rise more and how to prevent the ultra-thick crust from forming on top?
Life Without Bread: How a Low-Carbohydrate Diet Can Save Your Life by Christian B. Allan, Wolfgang Lutz. It is based on Dr. Lutz's work with thousands of patients in Austria. It deals with the health issues connected to high carb consumption. It is basically an English version and update of Dr. Lutz's 1967 book with the same title: Leben ohne Brot. He recommends eating only 72 grams of carbohydrates, and an unlimited amount of fat. And provides evidence as to why this is the healthiest diet. Read the review at Amazon by Todd Moody (it will be first!). See excerpts from his earlier edition: Dismantling a Myth: The Role of Fat and Carbohydrates in our Diet
Paleo baking is gluten free and grain free. Generally, paleo bread recipes have quite a few more ingredient options than low carb baking. Ingredients like tapioca flour and arrowroot flour are common in paleo baked goods, and help improve the texture greatly. The only thing is, these ingredients are relatively high in carbs and are typically avoided (or at least reduced) in low carb baking. This is why paleo baking can sometimes be a bit easier than low carb and/or keto baking.
I made you Paleo Bread today. It was YUMMY with my grass-fed Beef Vegetable Soup. I didn’t change one thing (except I only had a 8.5×4-inch glass loaf pan–my smallest). It turned out great. It did stick a little on the very center bottom. I think I may have been a little anxious to get it out of the pan, but your suggested pan would be a much better choice.
Hi I am new to the grain free diet and I love this bread. Has anyone figured out the calorie count for it? I have been gluten free since 2003 and it has served me well, although I think that I could benefit from grain free. But like all diet changes that I have tried in the past I tend to gain weight if I do not know the calorie count of the new recipes. Thanks.
No background science here or lengthy explanations, only 15 easy guidelines to follow to kick-start your Paleo journey. It’s up to you to decide to what extent you want to follow those guidelines, but if you follow them 100% you can be assured that you are eating the best food for your body and greatly investing in your long term health and well-being.
Thank you for taking care of us who need your recipes! I recently found out that tapioca comes from the cassava plant and that is where they get cyanide from, so I know longer eat it and found out that I was allergic to it. If its not refined enough, it is a problem for many people who eat it and don’t know why they don’t feel good. You might want to consider not using it or xanthan gum or guar gum in any of your recipes either. They come from Pakistan and India and cause stomach distress in many people as they are a bean. Guar gum is used in oil fracking so it’s really not a great ingredient to be putting into food either! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oetS-bdZLOY
The Vibram Fivefingers KSO Trek is a more rugged version of the popular KSO. Made from K-100 high performance kangaroo leather, the KSO Trek boasts extreme strength for excellent durability; amazing breathability; perspiration resistance to prevent sweat damage and prolong shoe life; and features MicrobloK anti-microbial treatment. These Vibram shoes are made for rugged outdoor use, providing grip and traction over a variety of surfaces. Additionally, the individual toe pockets separate and strengthen toes to improve balance, agility, and range of motion; while the thin EVA midsole and Vibram Performance rubber outsole allows your feet to move the way nature intended. The Vibram FiveFingers KSO Trek Shoes are perfect for light trekking, trail running, fitness walking, and travel. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Isfh0AtkZd0
I found this recipe after buying Paleo Bread at Wholefoods. It was SO bad that it drove me to find a good recipe to make my own. When I read the review that it wasn’t too eggy, I was sold. I am not a huge fan of eggs (too bad for someone attempting a primal diet) so I was set to try this. I followed the directions exactly…even taking extra time to beat the eggs. I used the yoghurt instead of coconut cream. It came out perfect. Thank you for making something edible and still Paleo. I tried to give this recipe 5 stars but it’s having a glitch and won’t let me. 5 stars!!!
This came out better than I expected it to actually. I did not have coconut flour so I added an extra 1/4c of almond meal. It was a tad bland but other than that a nice bread. I think the coconut flour would add to its flavor and sweetness. I will try again and add a banana just to give it a little more flavor. the pan I used was a regular loaf pan and it was a bit thin but otherwise a nice bread. My daughter enjoyed with peanutbutter and banana mashed together and I had it with her egg salad. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7h8FavH-Jx4
The Paleo Answer: 7 Days to Lose Weight, Feel Great, Stay Young by Loren Cordain. The author shows you how to supercharge the Paleo diet for optimal lifelong health and weight loss. Featuring a new prescriptive 7-day plan and surprising revelations from the author's original research, it's the most powerful Paleo guide yet. Published December 20, 2011.
Tonight, I tried using this differently…I coated all natural hot dogs with it and made “corn dogs”. I was able to cover 7 easily with a full recipe, minus 1 egg so it would be stiffer dough, and laid them on a Silpat covered cookie sheet. I started at 400 degrees to make sure they browned, but I ended up turning it down to 350 for about 25 minutes. They were great. Thanks again for the recipe and hard work.
Thank you so much for what you are doing! I’m making my second loaf now and my family enjoyed the first one immensely. I finally was able to enjoy a poached egg on toast again. Your recipes are so easy to follow, and even substitute with. For instance I just finished baking up a ton of your “thin mints”, and was low on Almond Flour, so I just threw in what I had, about a cup, and then added a half a cup of raw Pecans to the food processor and continued as directed on the recipe. It was perfect. So since I love to experiment, I’m making my second loaf with walnuts instead of pecans. It’s rising and looking beautiful. I can’t wait to try it.
Hi Broke, so there are a few things that could be affecting the texture of your bread. First, do you have an oven thermometer to make sure the temperature is where you need it to be? This could affect the baking time. It’s ok if you need to bake it longer, and I would let it cook until you test the middle of the bread with a stick inserted into the center. Only when it comes out clean you remove it from the oven.
Hi there, it’s Lacey! I’m the editor and main writer for A Sweet Pea Chef. I'm a food blogger, health and food coach, professional photographer, and mommy of three. I also run the awesome free Take Back Your Health Community, am the healthy and clean weekly meal planner behind No-Fail Meals, and a little bit in love with Clean Eating. Be sure to check out my free beginner’s guide to eating clean and follow me on YouTube and Instagram to get my latest recipes and healthy eating inspiration. Read More… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0KQgyfPixmw
I really wanted to keep this nut and seed paleo bread more on the seed side. Haha, you get my point. The only nut that is really involved is almond in the almond flour. The rest are seeds such as pumpkin seeds, chia seed, and poppyseed, which you can interchange with flax or sunflower seeds. Either way, it truly gives the bread a nutty flavor that’s not too heavy. Cool? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yrcSUhdBgtc
Buried in the middle of The Revised Metabolic Oncolytic Regimen for Effecting Lysis in Solid Tumors one can find their diet recommendations for tumor control. It has a paleo diet orientation. Protein is 35%, preferably Omega 3 rich. Carbohydrates (also 35%) are only vegetables and fruit, no beans, bread, potatoes, or any grain. Then dietary and supplemental forms of fat should provide 20-30% of (daily) calories.
I love this recipe and I like to tweak things. I came up with a tweak to make banana bread. Since holiday baking is my weakness and I had an almost suicidal reaction to wheat (I really know I’m allergic now) I wanted some banana bread. I subbed 1 cup of almond flour to walnut flour, omitted the ACV, added sweetener to taste, 1 tsp vanilla, 1 tsp pumpkin pie spice (sugar free) and 1 mashed banana. I LOVE banana so I also added a little banana flavoring. Baked up to a heavenly bread that I can eat without bloating and severe mood reactions!! I LOVE this site for recipes!! My next attempt will be either pumpkin bread or orange cranberry. Makes a great “I NEED SWEET” snack or breakfast as I’m zooming out the door.
This is a list of paleo diet meats allowed on the diet. Almost all meats are paleo by definition. Of course, you’ll want to stay away from highly processed meats and meats that are very high in fat (stuff like spam, hot dogs, and other low-quality meats), but if it used to moo, oink, or make some other sound, it’s almost certainly paleo (and, yes, that means you can still have bacon). Here’s the full list of paleo diet meats.
Thanks for the reply Adriana. What I meant by a quick mix in the Vitamix was that I “Vitamixed” it one more time to be positive it was as fine as could be. I keep almonds frozen and I use them up over time to make milk, then dehydrate the pulp and then turn it into flour. I will have to think about buying the flour already made again…seems like I’d be going backwards in my slow but steady journey of making the most of my whole ingredients. I wonder if blanched flour would work better…I’ve read that the the only difference with the skins is the little brown specks that don’t bother me. I may try again at some point.
If you were to eat an unlimited amount of red meat (which the paleo diet technically allows), you may see your heart health suffer. While experts applaud the omission of packaged and processed foods like cake, cookies, chips, and candy — which are well known to be bad for your ticker — they’re not crazy about the fact that paleo doesn’t allow you to eat whole grains, legumes, and most dairy. Whole grains in particular have been linked with better cholesterol levels, as well as a reduced risk of stroke, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. (13) These are all comorbidities of heart disease. (14) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L8cvENxm6dQ
Fattening cattle with corn changes the lipid balance and is clearly not the natural diet for a grass eating cow. In Simple change in cattle diets could cut E. coli infection researchers have found that when cattle were fed hay or grass for just five days before slaughter, much less E. Coli cells were present in the animal's feces and virtually all surviving E. coli bacteria were not acid-resistant and were killed by human stomach acid.
It took a month or so, but I finally decided to start playing around with adding a few other paleo-friendly starches, like arrowroot and tapioca. That’s what it took for me to come up with what I consider to be the perfect loaf. I had been holding out on adding other starches because I wanted to keep my ingredient list minimal, but really, these additions make all the difference in the end result of this bread.
After making this wonderful bread half a dozen times (that’s in 10 days!) I decided to experiment. To this recipe I added a handful of each: drained and dried Calamata olives, fresh rosemary, raw pecans. I doubled the salt, at least, and sprinkled a few shakes of garlic powder into the batter. The new bread is just delicious. I just finished a piece with a smear of chèvre on it whine still warm.
I think red meat from grain fed cattle and sheep IS bad for us . These animals were designed to eat grass. We were designed to eat meat, fat, vegetables , a few seeds and a little seasonal fruit. But never any kind of grain. ! When Man began farming and grain consumption , so began disease and illness. Today our food supply is being contaminated by Factory farming and GMOs.
Hi Anita, I double checked my carton egg whites. 3/4 cup of egg whites is equivalent to 4 large whole eggs, not 4 large egg whites. Mine has a chart for converting whole eggs, and the conversion for egg whites only is below the chart. It says 2 tablespoons of liquid egg whites are equivalent to the egg white of 1 whole egg. So, 12 large egg whites would be 24 tablespoons, or 1 1/2 cups as written in the recipe. Hope this helps!
Gabbi Berkow, MA, RD, CDN, CPT, is a Paleo advocate. She maintains the whole, unprocessed foods the diet recommends are low in calories, are high in nutrients, provide the fuel the body needs, and are the kinds of foods humans have evolved to easily digest. However, she doesn't agree with the blanket recommendations that everyone needs to eliminate dairy, grains (in particular, those containing gluten), and legumes, unless they have a medical condition that warrants it (eg, celiac disease or dairy allergy). In addition, Berkow says, "Dairy in particular is a good source of protein, calcium, and vitamin D, so cutting out dairy can make it harder to get enough of these nutrients." https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E-TDu1F0ZTA
The paleo diet (also nicknamed the caveman diet, primal diet, Stone Age diet, and hunter-gatherer diet) is hugely popular these days, and goes by one simple question: What would a caveman eat? Here, we explain what the paleo diet involves, its pros and cons, and, ultimately, what a modern person needs to know to decide whether or not to take the paleo diet plunge. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrqWr0sMi30
“I think there are a lot of positives about it,” Holley says. “It cuts out a lot of processed foods just naturally, like processed grains or added sugar through soft drinks or juice.” And because the diet promotes eating anti-inflammatory foods — like fruits, vegetables, and unsaturated fats in nuts and certain oils — your health could benefit, Holley explains. Cutting out processed foods and sugar will also help lower your risk of certain diseases, like type 2 diabetes and certain cancers, she says. (6) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-1U3ta-sH0Q
this looks amazing! i am low carb, so this will work for me as opposed to some of your other gluten free breads! i cant have arrowroot powder and other similar ingredients. that being said, i love ALL your recipes and even if they contain ingredients i cant have, they are usually easy to substitute or ‘play’ around with until i get it low carb friendly;) thankfully, you have done the work for me here;)thanks!!!!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PolYOA4C1-M
Just tasted this….excellent. Much fluffier than 2.0, though similar in flavor. I used coconut palm sugar syrup (boiled 1/2c water, added 1c organic coconut palm sugar, reduced heat for 3 min until dissolved, let cool before using, store in mason jar in fridge) which I use to replace any sweetener in baking…agave, honey, etc. Worked great in this as well. So moist too. Awesome texture! Thanks Elana!
The trouble with that view, however, is that what they’re eating is probably nothing like the diet of hunter-gatherers, says Michael Pollan, author of a number of best-selling books on food and agriculture, including Cooked: A Natural History of Transformation. “I don’t think we really understand…well the proportions in the ancient diet,” argues Pollan on the latest episode of the Inquiring Minds podcast (stream below). “Most people who tell you with great confidence that this is what our ancestors ate—I think they’re kind of blowing smoke.”
While I haven’t made this recipe, I’ve used flaxmeal in a lot of muffin recipes, and on a occasion I’ve noticed those same gossamer-type strings after a few days. My best guess is it has something to do with flax, although I’m not sure what causes them to develop. Some recipes I use flaxmeal in never develop the strings, and some do, but it definitely only happens in breads where I use flaxmeal. I think the food is still safe to eat though! I wish I knew exactly what causes it too…
Oh my GOSH!! It’s REAL bread! My poor little guys (okay, and me too) have really been struggling since going gluten free for the third time (this time we went Paleo and it has finally resolved their symptoms and as a side note resolved mine, though I didn’t realize in the beginning I had a gluten problem). My son and I are oohing and ahhing in my kitchen right now over this bread. I’d given up on the difficult task of making gluten free bread when the first several complicated recipes I tried were gross and gritty. I did not have high hopes for yet another bread recipe, nevertheless one that would fit into our Paleo diet, but this is seriously amazing and it was fast and easy to make in my Vitamix. Moist and delicious, we decided we had to make some quick strawberry jam to celebrate this delicious occasion. Thank you, thank you for giving my boys (and me!!) our bread back!!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pr9Ogyiw4AA
— Toby Amidor, MS, RD, CDN, is founder of Toby Amidor Nutrition (http://tobyamidornutrition.com) and the author of the cookbooks The Greek Yogurt Kitchen: More Than 130 Delicious, Healthy Recipes for Every Meal of the Day and The Healthy Meal Prep Cookbook. She's a nutrition expert for FoodNetwork.com and a contributor to US News Eat + Run and MensFitness.com.
Hi. I purchased the fox run pan just to be able to make this bread. Although I like the taste, both times I’ve made this the bread has a large uncooked section in the middle. The second time I made sure to cook for the longer time and inserted a knife to check, which came out clean. Although the uncooked section is smaller, it is still there. I followed the recipe and do not know what went wrong. Any suggestions?
Hi Maya, I’m new to your website and I’m anxious to try out this bread recipe. I’m helping my 27 year old son lose some weight. He’s on some pretty potent medication that has caused him to crave carbs thus putting on quite a bit of weight over the past few years. Since I’m his caregiver and also a Certified Nutritionist, I’m looking for some healthy alternatives to make his transition a bit easier and he loves bread. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vX92H9KpVA
I’ve tried a few other paleo/grain free breads and this is by far the best. It tastes great but what’s amazing about this recipe is ITS SO EASY. Being able to throw all the ingredients in a mixer and not having to fuss with whipping and folding in egg whites, etc is a perk. I made two modifications and it turned out well. Slightly melted raw honey in place of maple syrup and I doubled the recipe because I like the loaf to be close to a standard size (obviously adds a quite longer bake time but worth it).
Ideally one should eat a wide variety of proteins from as many animal sources as possible. One need not and should not avoid fatty cuts of meat, particularly if consuming pastured sources. An often overlooked piece of the paleo diet in popular culture is an over-reliance on standard cuts of meat, at the expense of organ meats, bone broth and other collagen sources. For more information on the historical and practical aspects of consuming a more balanced protein intake, check out the Weston A. Price Foundation. If weight-loss is a goal, protein makes you feel satisfied between meals.
I really wanted to keep this nut and seed paleo bread more on the seed side. Haha, you get my point. The only nut that is really involved is almond in the almond flour. The rest are seeds such as pumpkin seeds, chia seed, and poppyseed, which you can interchange with flax or sunflower seeds. Either way, it truly gives the bread a nutty flavor that’s not too heavy. Cool?
As for the mixing…I mixed the dry ingredients in one bowl, then separated the egg yolks and whites, in bowls. I whipped the whites until they were thick. I added the yolks to the whites, and added the honey and oil. I mixed that up. I added the wet to the dry and mixed. It was really thick. Then I combined the baking soda and vinegar, mixing them. I added them to the whole mix and slightly stirred.
I had the same effect but I used the same pan. The issue I had was the egg whites. I beat them with a mixer for 2 minutes with the cream of tartar and still couldn’t get them whipped. I’d say they were half whipped. I gave up and put them in the loan pan anyway. The bread looked the same and tasted great but it was somewhat spongy. I’m wondering if the egg whites really wouldn’t whip because I didn’t realize they had to be room temp. The bread is great but it won’t hold up for sandwiches. Any tips on egg whipping? I felt egg defeated today!
Made with peanut butter instead of almond butter because that’s what I had. I could taste the coconut (which I like), but I will try substituting butter for the coconut oil next time (or half butter half coconut oil), as I am trying to find a good sandwich bread recipe for my picky 5 year old. It’s like a banana bread consistency, but when lightly toasted with butter, reminds me of regular wheat bread. Delicious, and will definitely make again! Thank you for the recipe!
I buy whole golden flax seeds. I grind them very fine to use them so my flax seed meal is always fresh and not rancid. I have never tried it in bread so am going to give it a shot with this recipe. Hope it turns out. There are so many glowing comments for this bread. I don’t eat grains and usually just use cloud bread which I love but my grandchildren would prefer a “slice” of bread. Do you think this would turn out in a pullman pan?
I am not over weight. I am quite small actually. Maybe just need to tone up. I have severe fibromyalgia. After my doctor and I have done tons of research and learning more and more about it we found that I need to cut out a bunch of stuff that I consume to help lower my inflammation, exhaustion and digestive problems. Very frustrating. After more research I have learned that the Paleo “diet” is pretty spot on to how I know have to eat. I am so grateful to have a guidline to follow and not doing this alone. I am tired of being in chronic pain everyday all day. Along with other things I am doing to help my body be restored Paleo sounds to be a promising adventure. I’ll make sure to post after a month or two to tell you if my heath has improved. Thank you for putting the extra effort into putting out the information for us.
my loaf is in the oven so here’s hoping it will be as good as it looks…. please amend the directions to include the addition of baking powder, chia seeds and salt. I’m assuming they come before the vinegar but the directions don’t say anything about adding them in. I didn’t notice until after the vinegar was added so I hope it still turns out. thanks Lisa
Tapioca Flour: Also called tapioca starch, tapioca flour is made from the root of the cassava plant. Tapioca flour is nearly flavorless, so it’s good for using in both sweet and savory recipes. In paleo baking, this flour helps lighten up and improve the texture of paleo baked goods and make them a bit springier, and also helps with browning. This is why I like using it along with other denser paleo flours, such as almond flour.
I made this last night and it turned out great! I used Bob’s Red Mill almond flour which I know you don’t usually recommend and subbed 1/8 cup chia seed for the flax because that’s what I had on hand and it worked well. We’ve had grilled cheese and peanut butter sandwiches so far. My son is autistic and a very picky eater, and sometimes we have a hard time getting him the protein he needs so this recipe helps a lot. Thanks, Elana!
Most nutritionists consent that the Paleo diet gets at least one thing right—cutting down on processed foods that have been highly modified from their raw state through various methods of preservation. Examples include white bread and other refined flour products, artificial cheese, certain cold cuts and packaged meats, potato chips, and sugary cereals. Such processed foods often offer less protein, fiber and iron than their unprocessed equivalents, and some are packed with sodium and preservatives that may increase the risk of heart disease and certain cancers.
Using sweet potatoes as your base ingredients serves a few purposes. First, it makes it so you don’t have to use a wheat or grain source as the main ingredient. Second, it provides plenty of antioxidants and vitamin support from the sweet potatoes, as well as additional fiber. You’ll still want to get a serving of vegetables in with your meal, as this doesn’t really cut it if you’re having a nice portion of meat with it. Think green leafy vegetables in a salad and you’ve got a nice balanced Paleo meal.
Both kids and adults will enjoy stretching the honey into taffy, and the longer you stretch the honey, the easier and more pliable the taffy becomes. To avoid a sticky situation, make sure any surface you set the taffy on is thinly coated with cooking spray. You can also wear latex gloves (coated with canola oil) to make the pulling a little easier.
Hi Romy, almond flour is lot less absorbent than coconut flour (like A LOT). I know a few people have tried using oat flour with success, but I worry that almond flour would not be sufficient for absorbing the almond butter and creating a nice, firm texture. I’d recommend starting with about 3/4 cup almond flour, and experimenting as needed. Same for the stevia! Good luck–let me know how it turns out! 🙂
Paleo critics point out that not all grains are created equal—whole grains do not spike your blood sugar as much as refined grains. Even so, paleo dieters still steer clear of grains because they contain different compounds and proteins like gluten, lectins and phytates, which they claim cause inflammation in the body and block other nutrients from being absorbed. Paleo critics say these compounds are not a problem unless you have an allergy or sensitivity.
Weigh your ingredients. This will forever be a staple recommendation for any sort of gluten free baking here at gnom-gnom. As aside from leading to less dirty dishes, it will ensure consistent results time and time again. Remember that gluten free (and particularly keto) baking is notoriously finicky, and measuring by cups is anything but accurate. And if you don’t own a baking scale, measure with cups by dropping the ingredients onto them rather than scooping them out (which often leads to overpacking). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qBt-yRHqajM