Origins and Evolution of Human Diet was an academic web site at the University of Arkansas devoted to discussion of evolution and the human diet. They had good articles on the conferences link. Here is one from the archives: Boyd Eaton's Evolution, Diet and Health which argues that current w-6 : w-3 imbalance together with absolute dietary DHA intake quite low in human evolutionary perspective may be relevant to the frequency of unipolar depression.
Liza, I haven’t tried this recipe using cashew flour, but if you’ve had success using a 1:1 substitution for almond flour making other bread-type recipes, I think it could work! I also haven’t tried this recipe using coconut milk, but other readers have and said it works well. Yes, please let us know how it goes if you try it with these substitutions!
I have a problem, Im hoping someone here can help me with! I have a wheat allergy, very lactose intolerant, allergic to chick peas, and also sensitive to most other grains (rice flour is one the safe ones). I really thought the paleo diet would be able to help me, but Ive bought a cookbook, and look on various sites and most of the recipes call for coconut flour, coconut oil, coconut aminos, coconut crystals, or coconut milk; and I have a bad intolerance to coconut! Its not an allergy, but it will make me very uncomfortable for at least a cpl hours! I saw one question that was brought up, that said that almond flour and coconut flour are used for different reasons and connot be interchanged, so is there anything out there that can be used in replace of coconut oil, coconut flour, coconut aminos, and coconut crystals that will still make the recipes come out good?
I love love love love!!! This recipe. My only questions are how should I store the bread? And how long should it last without spoiling? I made a loaf on Sunday evening and kept it in an airtight container on my counter. By Friday morning (or maybe even before because I hadn’t eaten it for a day or so) it was ripe. Smelled like something was fermenting. Any tips? Maybe I should have stored it in the fridge.
The Soft Science of Dietary Fat is a summary of an article in Science Magazine reporting that mainstream nutritional science has demonized dietary fat, yet 50 years and hundreds of millions of dollars of research have failed to prove that eating a low-fat diet will help you live longer. In fact, there are good reasons to believe high-carbohydrate diets may be even worse than high-fat diets. Here is the text from the original article by Gary Taubes.
Every recipe box, whether digital or made of wood, should have an apple crisp recipe. This autumnal treat makes for a delicious breakfast dish or a yummy dessert. One of any crisp’s attractions is its combination of textures. The pecans and walnuts provide crunch and are a good source of fiber and iron. Top this with a coconut-based whipping cream to keep this dessert strictly paleo. 
I just used a 9 x 5 pan and did not change the recipe proportions at all. Since this is the only loaf pan I have, instead, I pushed the dough against one side of the pan and formed a small loaf that is closer to the 7.5 x 3.5 pan size that Elana says to use. The dough was sticky enough to hold together fine and did not collapse or spread out during baking. It’s not the most beautiful creation, but it’s proportioned OK and tastes fine. I say – make it work with what you have and you’ll be alright. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2upizqKg7cY
Paleoista: Gain Energy, Get Lean, and Feel Fabulous With the Diet You Were Born to Eat by Nell Stephenson. Paleoista is not only a how-to book, it is also a glimpse into the life of a woman who gives advice on how to eat this way, and lives the life, day in and day out. The author's websites: NellStephenson.com Nutrition & Fitness and Paleoista.com. To be published May 1, 2012.
Despite the fact the Paleo diet eliminates food groups vital to health, Katz believes the eating pattern has some merit. "Every species on the planet does well on the diet which it natively adapted. And the idea that things would be different for our species is absurd. There is some modern science to show its benefits, but with limitations. Those limitations include what it is compared to (everything is better than the typical American diet), and how genuinely 'Paleo' it really is," adding that there's a big difference between what meat enthusiasts casually call "Paleo" and legitimate Stone Age Homo sapiens eating patterns, which by today's standards would make a huge negative impact on the environment. "To procure the wild plants and animals required for sustenance depends on a lot of space per person," Katz says. "I have done the math, and for the current human population to eat that way would require about 15 times the surface area of the planet. Eight billion Homo sapiens cannot be foragers, or substantially carnivorous, without decimating the planet."
Ostensibly, Grok is "a rather typical hunter–gatherer" living before the dawn of agriculture—an "official primal prototype." He is the poster-persona for fitness author and blogger Mark Sisson's "Primal Blueprint"—a set of guidelines that "allows you to control how your genes express themselves in order to build the strongest, leanest, healthiest body possible, taking clues from evolutionary biology (that's the primal part)." These guidelines incorporate many principles of what is more commonly known as the Paleolithic, or caveman, diet, which started to whet people's appetites as early as the 1960s and is available in many different flavors today.
I know that soy can cause inflammation and if you are not using soy free eggs, that could be part of the cause. It may not be the actual egg but the soy that is the problem. just a thought. Here is an article that has some interesting info on soy. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/07/29/soy-effects-on-women.aspx?e_cid=20120729_SNL_Art_1
I am not over weight. I am quite small actually. Maybe just need to tone up. I have severe fibromyalgia. After my doctor and I have done tons of research and learning more and more about it we found that I need to cut out a bunch of stuff that I consume to help lower my inflammation, exhaustion and digestive problems. Very frustrating. After more research I have learned that the Paleo “diet” is pretty spot on to how I know have to eat. I am so grateful to have a guidline to follow and not doing this alone. I am tired of being in chronic pain everyday all day. Along with other things I am doing to help my body be restored Paleo sounds to be a promising adventure. I’ll make sure to post after a month or two to tell you if my heath has improved. Thank you for putting the extra effort into putting out the information for us.
Our bodies need much more protein than the average person consumes. In fact, protein accounts for only 15 percent of the average person’s daily calories, while 19 to 35 percent of the average hunter-gatherer diet was comprised of protein. This was due to the high consumption of meat, seafood, and other animal products prevalent in contemporary approaches to Paleo eating.
Before going Paleo, I LOVED making bread. And while I miss it much less than I thought I would, I’m still hunting for good savory bread recipes. This one is the best so far! My husband swore there must be some type of wheat flour in it. Unfortunately, my almond butter had evaporated cane juice in it, and my delicate Paleo palate thinks this is somewhat sweet. I will be more careful about my ingredients next time and make sure there is no sweetener. It did not rise quite as much as I had hoped, but it is delicious. I think I’ll have this batch with jam and next time around attempt a sandwich. After all the green bread comments, I may try sunflower seed butter instead! I made sweet potato biscuits with purple sweet potatoes, which produced a turquoise biscuit. So why not green bread? I think this is a terrific basic recipe, and I’m already thinking of ways to adapt it to create Paleo versions of some of my favorite wheat flour recipes 🙂
Maya, I can’t tell you how excited I am to find this recipe! I have three young cats who are on a raw diet. In my previous life I was a home economics major and was taught not to waste anything. So from making their raw food I have the byproducts of egg whites and chicken bones and skin. It all gets frozen for future use. I use the bones and skin to make my own bone broth but I have egg whites out the ying yang! They are frozen in jars with the measurement of the contents on the lid. Now I’m going to thaw some and make bread! Have you tried making french toast with this?
The almond bread toasts well! I enjoy it with avocado in the mornings or all sorts of toppings. I feel great after eating it and restaurants let me hand them the bag and they toast it for me or use it to make sandwiches! I am very happy I can eat a bread with no nightshades-potato starch, e.g., nor yeast. My arthritis is absent when I refrain from nightshades and fermented items. I eat gluten and dairy free due to autoimmune issues and have normal labs with these dietary changes. I eat from the garden and meat, but really like breads! I like ALL of Julian’s breads and there is zero competition out there! Thank you, Julian, for loving us enough to feed us!
I would like to try this Paleo recipe as it really does look like a healthy one! We appreciate all your hard work “tweaking” these recipes to get them just right! However, I would like to comment that some of your recipe “supporters” live in Canada and we can’t get some of the brand named items you mention at times. Perhaps for this reason some have asked re substitutions. As an example, I made your Chocolate Prune Bars the other day but wasn’t sure about the NuNaturals Stevia. I didn’t know whether it was a powder or a liquid, and since we don’t have that brand here I took a “leap in the dark” and used SweetLeaf Vanilla Creme since there was vanilla in the recipe anyway. I’m sure yours turned out better than mine but I’m going to try again. Also, wasn’t sure whether the chocolate chips were semi-sweet or unsweetened, but just used what I had, which was bittersweet. I guess that item is pretty well a personal choice. Just thought I would let you know that we do have some different brand names in Canada which can sometimes confuse the issue. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtEubaJ30n0
This episode of Inquiring Minds, a podcast hosted by best-selling author Chris Mooney and neuroscientist and musician Indre Viskontas, is guest-hosted by Cynthia Graber. It also features a discussion of the new popular physics book Trespassing on Einstein’s Lawn, by Amanda Gefter, and new research suggesting that the purpose of sleep is to clean cellular waste substances out of your brain.
thank you for prompt reply. I do hope it tastes better than other low carb bread I’ve made and thrown out because I dislike the taste and sometimes it was too wet. It looks great so will try and report back. I must find something I like as at the moment am tucking into “normal” bread and that’s not good for my wastline or my diabetes. Thanks for the inspiring recipes. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=srmxhx3sVhI

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I am so looking for breads that work……….this does not……I have your books………..but the question about the ammonia…….they are an in your face issue…………for me, not till I sliced the loaf……but my nose is very sensitive….and I taste the amonia without ingesting the product…………my Mum, who has no sense of smell left, loved it…….. time to keep trying…………I am borderline diabetic, mum is, and my lover is in denial……………..so looking for something that passes as ‘bread’…………..thanks for the help………….luckylin………. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sj4NJ6v-7A4
Made this today, had a couple slices for a sandwich for lunch! My add-in spices was a Mediterranean spice blend that added a nice depth. I froze the rest for future sandwich cravings… thanks for an easy recipe with everything I have on hand! Oh, and I used 3/4 cup of dehydrated almond pulp from making milk, and 1/2 cup bob’s red mill gf flour instead of all almond flour!
The following links tend towards news reports of scientific studies that point out some positive aspect of the paleo diet. If you are looking for current news reports, I suggest signing up for Google Alerts for the Type: News. I have three set up, for: "caveman diet," "paleo diet," and "paleolithic diet." You can also set them up for blogs and/or websites. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xblDaUVq55s
Hi Faith, I make a similar bread almost every day (from the Plant Paradox Cookbook), and it calls for full fat coconut milk…it works great as well. I will try your apple cider vinegar today, as the recipe I’ve been using calls for red wine vinegar. Thanks so much for posting, and thank you for the Arrowroot substitution…sometimes it can be a challenge to find! :-D
Richard Nikoley has the blog Free The Animal. He loves meat eating. His diet is near paleo, with the addition of some gray-area foods that he likes. These days most of his posts are on food. One recent trend in the paleo community is trying to optimize the proportions of the foods eaten. If you've read my definition you'll know that I simply define the diet as foods in and out. One of Richard's posts: Optimality: A Fool's Errand? has produced a long discussion of this trend.
Elizabeth, This recipe is a bit heavy on the eggs because they add structure here; without them, it would be difficult to get the same height without doing quite a bit of experimentation to find a suitable substitute. If you’re looking for a paleo-friendly bread-type of recipe, my Paleo Flatbread may be more useful. It’s more of a wrap or can be made thinner into a crepe, rather than a loaf of bread, but it is delicious. That recipe uses one egg, but I’ve successfully made it using a flax “egg” instead of a regular egg. Sorry I’m not able to be more help, but I hope you like the flatbread if you give it a try!
There is little argument over the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. They are chock-full of vitamins, minerals, fiber and antioxidants. The only caveat for paleo dieters is that some vegetables are starchy (e.g., potatoes) and some fruits are higher in sugar (e.g., bananas). So, if you are trying to lose weight or watch your blood sugar levels, eat these in moderation. In fact, potatoes are banned from some versions of the diet.

Thank you for another amazing recipe, Elana! I am thrilled to find delicious recipes that support a healthy lifestyle, and that I can share with family and friends. Your cookbooks are a staple in our house and your blog is a gift to me. I am looking forward to trying some of your great breakfast ideas to start to school year off right. Thanks for sharing the fruit of your efforts. :)
Thank you Elena! I Used a 500g William Sonoma non-stick loaf pan (a tad larger than suggested) and ground whole brown flax seeds in my spice grinder because I had them on hand in the freezer. Also, mixed in a small amount of unblanched almond flour with the blancheds because I had some to use up and used my grandmother’s old manual hand mixer rather than a food processor (don’t own one). My apartment smelled absolutely delicious when this was baking… nutty, earthy, eggy… I suspect the addition of the unblanched flour and regular flax deepened the color and flavor of the final product. It doesn’t look at all like your bread but rather has a deep brown multigrain look and cracked top. Even took some pictures. Very happy with this one. Easy, tasty, and so much better looking and tasting than most gf bread I’ve had. Texture is consistent all the way through and slices beautifully. I’ve sworn off the stuff but this wholesome paleo-friendly loaf has me sold. Can’t wait to try it on a sandwich tomorrow. So sick of salads for lunch. BTW tried the rosemary crackers last week and they were fantastic as well.
Trying to devise an ideal diet by studying contemporary hunter-gatherers is difficult because of the great disparities that exist; for example, the animal-derived calorie percentage ranges from 25% for the Gwi people of southern Africa to 99% for the Alaskan Nunamiut.[40] Descendants of populations with different diets have different genetic adaptations to those diets, such as the ability to digest sugars from starchy foods.[40] Modern hunter-gatherers tend to exercise considerably more than modern office workers, protecting them from heart disease and diabetes, though highly processed modern foods also contribute to diabetes when those populations move into cities.[40]
This is the best grain-free bread recipe I have ever tried. I didn’t have the loaf pan so I used one of my small casserole dishes and it came out square and a little darker around the edges. I used 1 1/2oz. of coconut oil and mixed it with 1/2oz. of melted butter and it came out really moist. It also came out dark like whole wheat bread, so I am assuming that I used just a little too much flax meal. I love you for taking the time to perfect this!!! I’m thinking of making a spice bread next time. Let you know if it works!!
Ugh! It’s been an hour and it doesn’t look like my bread has hardly risen at all. I haven’t made any substitutions, my yeast was good, etc. I currently live in Italy, so it’s plenty warm here today. I’ve now warmed my oven up a bit, turned it off, and have the dough in there to see if I can get any kind of rise out of it before trying to cook. Fingers crossed!
It’s easy to find more guidance online, but a book also makes a handy reference. "The Paleo Diet," for example, outlines basic Paleo principles and offers three “levels” that allow for different degrees of cheating – three “open meals” per week on the “entry level” plan, two on “maintenance” and just one on “maximal.” Depending on the level, you might also get “transitional” condiments (low-fat dressing and salsa) and drinks (coffee, beer or wine in moderation) to wash down the meat and plants. You can use the levels as you like. Start with the first and move gradually to the more restrictive – or just stay put. For more dramatic changes, head right to the third. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6It1CI9yO18
Hi Kim, thanks for your comment. Feel free to use a glass bread pan, the issue is that if you use a standard sized glass loaf pan when the magic line is called for the breads won’t fill the pan all the way and the breads will be very short. Since the magic line pan is smaller than a standard size loaf pan, you may also need to adapt the baking time :-)
If you measured correctly, it’s possible that your eggs are smaller than the ones Elana used. My eggs are very large, and the batter comes out perfectly every time. Too bad more recipes don’t use weights or measures for eggs (beaten to make it easy to adjust quantity) to ensure consistent results! Eggs can vary widely in size. 5 jumbo size can easily be 7 smaller eggs.
Hi Kristi, I’m glad you liked the taste! Sorry it didn’t rise for you. It’s hard to say what happened without being in the kitchen with you. Were the peaks in the egg whites not firm enough, or did they fall too much when folding with the rest of the batter? That is the main culprit I can think of, as the egg whites are a big part of what creates the volume in this bread.
Nice and firm. Baked it on the recommended temp, added 6 or 7 minutes. Pressed the middle and it was great. I let it cool. What was nice about it was obviously it’s low carb bread…hurray for that, but it cut well. Got 18 slices easily about 1/2 inch thick without breakage. Most importantly, it wasn’t greasy, or almond tasting overload, just delicious.
The Paleolithic Prescription: A Program of Diet & Exercise and a Design for Living by S. Boyd Eaton, M.D., Marjorie Shostak and Melvin Konner. This book, published in 1988, was the start of the Paleolithic diet movement. Its recommendations are not in line with what today is considered a paleo diet, as whole grain breads and pastas, legumes and some low fat dairy products are allowed. However, it is still a profoundly important book. Used books are available for a reasonable price.
A great question to ask is “Does the Paleo diet work?” Here we have a head to head comparison between the Paleo diet and Mediterranean diet in insulin resistant Type 2 Diabetics. The results? The Paleo diet group REVERSED the signs and symptoms of insulin resistant, Type 2 diabetes. The Mediterranean diet showed little if any improvements. It is worth noting that the Mediterranean diet is generally held up by our government as “the diet to emulate” despite better alternatives. You can find an abstract and the complete paper here.
Arrowroot Starch: You may also see arrowroot starch labeled as arrowroot flour or arrowroot powder. It’s made from tubers traditionally from a plant called Maranta arundinacea, but commercially it’s often found as a mixture of various starches, including starch from the cassava root. Similar to tapioca starch, arrowroot starch is used in paleo baking to improve the texture of baked goods, lightening them up a bit, and help with browning.
Take 30 days and give it a shot – cut out the grains and dairy, start eating more vegetables and fruits, eat more humanely raised and non-grain fed meat, cut out the liquid calories and sugar, and see how you feel after the month is up. If you’re analytical and want numbers to use in your final verdict, get your blood work done at the beginning and end of the month.
Hey Maya!! This is the 2nd recipe I’ve tried off your website and again I love it!! Turned out really well. I can have sandwiches again or a quick piece Of toast when I’m in a hurry to get out the door. I was skeptical about the xanthan gum since I tried a recipe using psyllium husk powder. I did not like it. I can’t taste the xanthan gum so I have no problem using it going forward. Thanks again for the recipe!!!

I love this recipe and I have one slight problem, during baking the top cracks on either one or both sides and puffs up, which crates a separation from the rest of the loaf. Still tastes great though. I’m wondering if it’s from either not mixing enough or mixing too much in the food processor or if there is something else I’m doing wrong? Not sure how I can send you a picture of todays load?!


Add yeast and maple syrup (to feed the yeast, see notes) to a large bowl. Heat up water to 105-110°F, and if you don't have a thermometer it should only feel lightly warm to touch. Pour water over yeast mixture, cover bowl with a kitchen towel and allow to rest for 7 minutes. The mixture should be bubbly, if it isn't start again (too cold water won't activate the yeast and too hot will kill it). 


These looked amazing, so I made them. We are GF in this house and these are perfect for us. My 11 & 7 yo boys asked for more. That never happens with GF products. This is the first recipe that I have made at home that is easy and taste great. Thank you so much for posting! Just an FYI – Nutiva makes a organic, non gmo blend of red palm and coconut oils shortening. That is what I used and they came out awesome.

[…] I don't like the word "diet", so I'll say that this is more a way of changing what you eat long-term. It's all based around what our ancestor hunter-gatherers would have eaten, and what we've evolved to be able to process and absorb. The very basic level of it, is that you don't eat carbohydrates, processed meats or sugars, and cut out dairy products. You instead eat plenty of fresh meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and nuts. You can still have oil, provided it's natural – so coconut, peanut & olive oil are all good. The good thing is that you're also allowed to take this to your own level – so if you want a couple of days off a week – say, weekends, you can do it & it will still be a lot healthier for you. This is a really helpful site I've used to make a note on my shopping list of what's allowed: The Ultimate Paleo Diet Food List | Ultimate Paleo Guide […]


I am also seeking egg-free bread recipes because I’m just dying for a sandwich! Unfortunately I have an IgG allergy to eggs. You can only imagine how limiting my recipe options are given that I’m on the dairy-free version of the specific carbohydrate diet AND I cannot have eggs… :-( Elana, is it even possible to make a grain-free bread without eggs or does it just defy the laws of physics, lol :-) You’d have many grateful people thanking you if you could figure this one out!
Exercise is a vital part of the live-by-your-genetic-code equation. Surviving in the Stone Age meant a constant on-the-go lifestyle that probably required 4,000-plus calories a day, according to David L. Katz, MD, director of the Yale University Prevention Research Center. Even most people who hit the gym regularly won't need to eat that many calories, but the principle of using food as fuel to exercise still stands.
this is a great recipe! I am not full-on paleo, primal, or other, but like to experiment. This one is a keeper. I followed the recipe pretty much to the point, just adding in a tablespoon of hemp protein powder (pure hemp) with the flour mixture. It has wonderful flavor and I’m looking forward to having it with some almond butter tonight. Thanks for all your testing! You’ve made happy recipients out of many of us :)
The Primal Blueprint Cookbook: Primal, Low Carb, Paleo, Grain-Free, Dairy-Free and Gluten-Free by Mark Sisson and Jennifer Meier. Recipes include: Roasted Leg of Lamb with Herbs and Garlic, Salmon Chowder with Coconut Milk, Tomatoes Stuffed with Ground Bison and Eggs, and Baked Chocolate Custard. Recipes are simple and have limited ingredients. Complaints are the book is stuffed with unnecessary photos and proofreading could have been better, e.g. oven temperatures were left out. And recipes are not truly paleo. Despite what is on the cover dairy is used in some recipes. The Amazon reviews average to 4+ stars.
The NY Times had a blog article on Good News on Saturated Fat which is reporting on Gary Taubes's interpretation of the new report in The New England Journal of Medicine on a two-year diet experiment in Israel. A followup is the post The Fat Fight Goes On where Gary rebuts the arguments against the study. And here's a good interview with Taubes (and includes a good summary): Gary Taubes on Cold Fusion, Good Nutrition and What Makes Bad (and Good) Science.
Hi everyone, I made this for the first time having started the paleo walk. I come from New Zealand and some of our food terms are very different. For instance in the USA your biscuit …is a cookie here, and what we call a scone is your biscuit . You are probably wondering where is this woman going with this… Well!.. I made this bread recipe yesterday it was absolutely delicious .. However it’s texture is more like a loaf not a sandwich bread. When I say a loaf, I mean something similar to a date loaf or a type of banana cake but made in a loaf tin. I just thought to share my cultural experience with the rest of the world. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gYUx8rBOK-0

Many of you asked if you could make them with almond butter. So here we are, settling it once and for all. Why, yes, you can make them with almond butter. Woot woot!! Btw, please tell me that people still say “woot woot.” As usual, I’m like 1 full decade late to the slang game. Shall I remind you of my use of “cray?” I’ve totally got to start calling things “lit” too before that goes out.
When I make this easy bread recipe, I weigh the zucchini and then use the food processor’s grater attachment to grate the zucchini right onto the batter, which is another time saving step! While this recipe is perfect for the end of summer when your garden is overflowing with zucchini, we also love to make this over the holidays to give to friends.

I just made this bread tonight and all I can say is WOW! I have had the ingredients for a couple of weeks but have been afraid that it wouldn’t turn out. I should have made it the day I had everything. Thank you for the detailed instructions…I just have a couple of questions…I did find that it was a little salty, can i reduce or leave out the salt? Second, you say in the narrative before the recipe that you can you arrowroot flour for a lighter crumb…do you mean the bread will not be as dense? Thank you, Thank you for your recipes….I’m on to try the ravioli’s for tomorrow nights dinner…


The almond bread toasts well! I enjoy it with avocado in the mornings or all sorts of toppings. I feel great after eating it and restaurants let me hand them the bag and they toast it for me or use it to make sandwiches! I am very happy I can eat a bread with no nightshades-potato starch, e.g., nor yeast. My arthritis is absent when I refrain from nightshades and fermented items. I eat gluten and dairy free due to autoimmune issues and have normal labs with these dietary changes. I eat from the garden and meat, but really like breads! I like ALL of Julian’s breads and there is zero competition out there! Thank you, Julian, for loving us enough to feed us!
umm, hard to say what may have caused this to happen. A few things I can think of are the temperature in your oven, the other ingredients you used, and the way you measured them. It’s so hard to say. I’ve made this bread with Welbee’s so it’s not that. Are you using measuring spoons and cups? I think you should try again. If you can purchase an oven thermometer to make sure the temperature is where you want it during baking I would do that. Every oven is so different… Here’s one for $6.51 on Amazon http://amzn.to/1WcJ1tv. Also, when you use test your bread with the stick, be sure to insert it all the way in, and in a couple different places. Please let me know how it goes when you make it again. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6x5GgSa5j8
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