According to the CDC, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the United States. Interestingly however, our Paleolithic ancestors and contemporarily studied hunter-gatherers showed virtually no heart attack or stroke while eating ancestral diets. The references below will explore these facts to better help you understand the heart-healthy benefits of a Paleo diet. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XyiCfNSG1_A

The Paleo concept is new for most people and this newness can spark many questions. We like people to not only read about and educate themselves on this topic but also to “get in and do it.” Experience is perhaps the best teacher and often cuts through any confusion surrounding this way of eating. Now, all that considered, there are still some common counter arguments to the Paleo diet that happen with sufficient frequency that a whole paper was written on it. Enjoy: Evolutionary Health Promotion. A consideration of common counter-arguments.
I just used a 9 x 5 pan and did not change the recipe proportions at all. Since this is the only loaf pan I have, instead, I pushed the dough against one side of the pan and formed a small loaf that is closer to the 7.5 x 3.5 pan size that Elana says to use. The dough was sticky enough to hold together fine and did not collapse or spread out during baking. It’s not the most beautiful creation, but it’s proportioned OK and tastes fine. I say – make it work with what you have and you’ll be alright.
A special note on dairy: I made this bread with dairy (butter and greek plain yogurt) so technically some people would go against it being called Paleo. With the knowladge we now have today we should know that there are many benefits to consuming dairy made from organic grass fed animals. Butter is an extremely good source of fat and loaded with vitamin A, D and K, and Conjugated Linoleic Acid. Yogurt contains live and active bacteria that are beneficial and keep your digestive system clean and provide food for the friendly bacteria that reside there. On top of that, the live active probiotic bacteria in yogurt can rev up your immune system and reduce your risk of yeast infection, prevent allergy symptoms and naturally increase your metabolism. Not all yogurts are made the same though, so you need to look for these words on the label:  “contain active cultures”, “active yogurt cultures”, or “living yogurt cultures”.
I’ve made this bread several times now in a traditional loaf pan and it came out great. A little short, but fully cooked and tasty and since i wasn’t using it to make a sandwich I was ok with the short, squatty loaf. The other day i decided to add the magic line loaf pan to my amazon order just to see what was so great about using this kind of pan. I made the recipe (the first one) just as I always have, same ingredients, same proportions, no subs and my bread came out barely cooked. The whole inside was raw. I continued to bake it and continued to bake it…..for another 45 min! and still raw. I pulled off the cooked “sides” and put the raw goopy mess back in the pan for another 30 min. Still raw in the middle. Not sure what’s so “magic” about this pan….???
The Garden of Eating: A Produce-Dominated Diet & Cookbook by Rachel Albert-Matesz and Don Matesz presents evidence for a diet of vegetables, fruits, and pasture-fed animal products. Provides a practical plan and 250 delicious, family-friendly, grain- and dairy-free recipes. Buy from the author's page The Garden of Eating. Rachel's blog The Healthy Cooking Coach. The cookbook maintains a perfect rating at Amazon.

I made it tonight and use a mini loaf pan. It came out delicious. I used the http://www.tasteofhome.com/article/how-to-cut-down-recipes/ link to adjust the recipe measurements using the one third column. I used 2 egg whites. The slices will be small but it was delicious with melted butter. Keto bread recipes and I have tried quite a few have not turned out well for me. I do not like to waste expensive ingredients that is why I will usually do a small amount first. This recipe has been the exception. It is good simple and delicious. I will make it again using the recipe as written. Note: I whipped the egg whites for 10 minutes to get the right consistency. I hope this helps and thank You Maya for finally for me making a bread that tastes great and is easy to make.
Robin, if you use a larger size pan than I indicate for the recipe, your batter won’t fill it up and your loaf will be flat. An example is if you fill a 1/2 cup with 1/2 cup of water, the water comes to the top of the cup, if you transfer that 1/2 cup of water to a 1 cup measuring cup, it will only fill it halfway. That’s what’s happening to the bread when the pan used it too large. I’m so glad that the bread tasted wonderful!
I just used a 9 x 5 pan and did not change the recipe proportions at all. Since this is the only loaf pan I have, instead, I pushed the dough against one side of the pan and formed a small loaf that is closer to the 7.5 x 3.5 pan size that Elana says to use. The dough was sticky enough to hold together fine and did not collapse or spread out during baking. It’s not the most beautiful creation, but it’s proportioned OK and tastes fine. I say – make it work with what you have and you’ll be alright.
I used the right sized pan after reading further into the blog it was the almond flour I used it was almond meal/flour. I went to one of your preferred sites and ordered flour from there. I am new to this type of baking so I am learning as I go. Do you have the nutritional breakdown of this bread printed somewhere? I am not seeing it on the recipe. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IRx9zlEMOk
I completely omitted the palm shortening and didn’t replace it with anything – I can’t tell that anything’s missing. I also doubled the recipe and put it all in one loaf pan like some others did and baked it for 30 minutes. Even the hubs, who is truly a bread addict, really likes this recipe! I think they’re kind of English Muffiny and I toast the slices for sandwiches. Gluten gives me eczema and I never thought I’d get a good sandwich bread again. Thank you! 🙂
My results: A nice golden loaf which did require an additional 10 min of bake time! I was very careful as to “fold” in the wet ingredients to the dry. It was “pourable” into the pan. I did not chill the coconut cream ( as I bought “cream” not milk). Next loaf I will chill it first. My loaf did not rise as much as in the picture, but only slightly “shorter”. So a smaller pain ( 7.25x 3.5) might fix this.

I just wanted to say that I made this bread and it came out fantastic! I’m very pleased with it. It held together nicely and had a good taste. I felt it was also a great base for maybe some nut additions or raisin bread for a sweet twist. I’m definitely going to be playing around with this recipe. It was so EASY to put together too! Just perfect for a busy family trying to stay healthy and feel good. Thanks so much Elana!
Early man didn’t have microwaves, but if they did they surely could have whipped up some of this Paleo bread. Sometimes you need or want bread in a hurry, like if you forgot to make it, or if you realize that a meal would be perfectly complete if it just had some bread to go with it. While there may not be any ancestral connection to our love of bread, it’s hard to argue that it’s become a staple of many diets, and really helps to satiate an appetite. But since it represents a part of the Neolithic time, bread isn’t truly Paleo even if it’s made with Paleo friendly ingredients.
ok my bread did not quite look like this.it had ammonia scents. serious…. seriously working recipes….open to suggestion…my husband’s mum was a a baker…..I fail at every attempt to provide. Your assistance is helpful.thx I am the ever so lucky lin..plan to stay lucky….(ps do this b/c my bs is borderline.fasting bs +90……..and though, my spouse refuses to acknowledge it he has issues as wel).180 after a mango whatever…I love this man, and plan to keep him with me. forever….pls assist..so tired of numbers that are compromised….bull ..we are a unique community because we care…many others are impacted, they just do not connect… We are the only people who appear to care about what elevated glucose does to people….I care for my mum…….she is blind…..confused……multiple strokes..pls, keep helping…Mom was a pilot, a photograhpher, an independent woman from the age of 15. Now, she lves in a bedroom, vision gone, and momory deplleted…….life does not have to end this way. She loves your recipes……I prep them……you have made her happy…love, lucky lin……….. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fFYJLWGqR_0
Mine came out perfect following the directions exactly (and for the first time, one of my recipes looks exactly like the picture!). I was having problems baking gluten free foods in my new house, I had to extend cooking times and then they were unevenly cooked often. I finally had the temperature checked on my oven and it turns out my temp was running quite a bit lower, the repairman said it was a common issue. Once adjusted my GF recipes are coming out perfect. (It seems gluten free baked goods are a little more tempermental.) Just a thought, the trouble may be your oven.
I have done this many times in many different ways. I used a regular size muffins pan and make dinner rolls for the holidays. English muffins rings for burger size buns, and whoopee pie pans for slider size buns. I use a standard size ice cream scoop for the rolls and slider buns (1 level scoop) and 2 scoops for the larger burger buns. Usually bake rolls and sliders for 20-25 minutes and for the bigger buns, start checking them at 25-30 minutes. Hope this encourages you to experiment,
I made this last night and it turned out great! I used Bob’s Red Mill almond flour which I know you don’t usually recommend and subbed 1/8 cup chia seed for the flax because that’s what I had on hand and it worked well. We’ve had grilled cheese and peanut butter sandwiches so far. My son is autistic and a very picky eater, and sometimes we have a hard time getting him the protein he needs so this recipe helps a lot. Thanks, Elana!
The following links tend towards news reports of scientific studies that point out some positive aspect of the paleo diet. If you are looking for current news reports, I suggest signing up for Google Alerts for the Type: News. I have three set up, for: "caveman diet," "paleo diet," and "paleolithic diet." You can also set them up for blogs and/or websites. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xblDaUVq55s
Angie, I’m happy to hear you and your hubby enjoyed the taste, but sorry to hear the bread was flat! The egg whites don’t need to be whipped for this recipe, but I’ll try to help you troubleshoot…first I would check to make sure that your baking powder is fresh. Also, did you use the full cup of egg whites? Did you make any ingredient substitutions or adjustments? Did you use a 9 by 5-inch loaf pan? Did you cook it at 350F and is your oven properly calibrated? Did you bake it for the amount of time the recipe calls for? I hope this helps!
Hi! Was wondering if I could substitute corn or coconut flour? They are the only ones that sit well with me and I’ve begun to develop a nut intolerance. I also can’t have vinegar, and am worried about arrowroot because I haven’t had it before. I’m having a hard time finding bread recipes that I can use and I’m looking to utilize a bread machine also. Hope this finds you well and thanks for your help and insight. Your page is beautiful. ♡ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvA68vYZtDE
hi Adriana! I tried this recipe but tweaked it a bit since I don’t have arrowroot flour. I used rice flour for the meantime cause it’s the only one I have here. Since I also have only one egg available, I reduced the other ingredients to 1/4 of the original. The recipe yielded one mini loaf bread. Tasty and tender texture like regular flour bread with a little gritty texture cause I just ground slivered almond in a seed grinder. But still loved the outcome. and it smells fantastic during baking. I posted the image in my instagram at http://instagram.com/karenieavila. Thank you for sharing your recipes to the world.:-)
The best part about baking up this bread is that it makes your whole house smell like you’re making cinnamon rolls. Scratch that, the real best part is eating this bread because it tastes like you’re eating cinnamon rolls. The only difference is you won’t be eating a bunch of artificial and processed ingredients, and instead you’ll be getting nourished by foods that your body craves, like flax seed, banana, honey, and more. Here’s a bread that you can really sink your teeth into and be totally happy with what you taste.

Lexi! I just made this recipe for the first time yesterday to eat alongside our burgers – and they were PERFECT. Great consistency, nice flavor and best of all – the rolls retained their shape and didn’t rip like most buns do while eating the burgers. My husband loved them! We plan on making these on the regular. Thanks so much for creating/sharing this!
Bill, my regular sized loaf pans are 9X5, and a loaf that size would require 3 cups of flour, 1 cup of water along with a little yeast, oil, salt and sugar. Before baking, the dough would be allowed to rise until doubled in volume, completely filling the pan and rising slightly over the top. This dough won’t even come close to filling that size loaf pan and it isn’t going to rise much. In fact about the best you’re going to get is that it will “puff” up a little from the reaction between the baking soda and vinegar, plus a bit more from the steam released during baking. I would suggest a much smaller loaf pan. Somewhere in the neighborhood of 6 X 3.5. Don’t be a slave to those numbers, find something close. My pans are old and some probably aren’t even being made anymore so just do what you can. Also, this recipe is going to create more of a batter than a dough, don’t leave it sit too long before putting it in the oven or the chemical reaction between the baking soda and vinegar will be all over before it even starts to bake. My suggestion is get it in the oven as soon as you can after mixing the ingredients. That way you’ll get as much rise as possible from the mixture. Good luck!
The Dietitian's Guide to Eating Bugs by Daniel Calder is a comprehensive guide to the nutritional content of insects. He believes insect breeding and consumption are important elements sustainable living, particularly when it comes to complementing foraged plant material with meat products. Numerous insects contain nutrients similar to those found in more conventional livestock, except the feed to conversion ratio is much higher and they're much cheaper to breed. You can find the book at scribd. Also available in e-book format for $35. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBb060OPegg
The final benefit we’ll discuss is a balanced dietary alkaline load. While this concept sounds complex, it’s actually quite simple: after digestion, all foods present either a net acid or alkaline load to the kidneys. Meats, fish, grains, legumes, cheese, and salt all produce acids, while Paleo-approved fruits and vegetables yield alkalines. A lifetime of excessive dietary acid may promote bone and muscle loss, high blood pressure, an increased risk for kidney stones, and may aggravate asthma and exercise-induced asthma. The Paleo diet seeks to reduce the risk of chronic disease by emphasising a balanced alkaline load.
This was my first foray into paleo breadmaking (and eating). DELICIOUS! I had to leave the room or else I would have eaten the whole loaf. I’m experimenting with recipes to try and find a GF sandwich bread that my kids will like. I’m going to make this again but will either use the coconut cream or use sweetened yogurt or add honey to make it a little sweeter. I’m also thinking about making it in a tin can so I can cut it into round slices.

In William Calvin's The Ascent of Mind, Chapter 8 he discusses why he thinks that the Acheulian hand-ax (the oldest of the fancy stone tools of Homo erectus) was really a "killer frisbee." He argues that natural selection for throwing accuracy, which requires brain machinery, is the evolutionary scenario for bootstrapping higher intellectual functions. There are many more articles about evolution and human development throughout William's extensive site, though much of it these days is on climate change. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-XhOJ-Y6zNQ


I was told by someone.I offered these to that they remknded her of a “sweet hawaiin roll”(i made them in square brownie compartment pans) so i played with recipe and used a coarser fround almond meal and added aome ground flax seed for.a heartier, “grainier”texture. I also replaced the tapioca with arrowroot for less.sweetness and used avocado oil in place of coconut oil. The result? An amazing “multigrain” knockoff!

mix the wet ingredients beating til well mixed. combine and pur into a mug sprayed with pam or greased with coconut oil. bake in the microwave for 1-2 minutes til a toothpick comes out clean. This recipe is very similar to a one minute muffin but has salt, applesauce and coconut oil added for moistness. if you want it firmer, leave out the coconut oil since the apple sauce is meant to be a draw for you son. or cut back on the apple sauce. as created the recipe will be a moist muffin which can be sliced cross wise into rounds and topped with your choice of toppings. to make a sandwich you might have to make it firmer or cool it in the fridge to make the slices thinner. this recipe will also make about three 4 inch pancakes. if fried in coconut oil.


Hi James, Thank you for sharing. Most likely this wasn’t fully cooked if it stuck to the parchment paper, as I never have to grease it, but I did add a note to the post that you could do that to be on the safe side. I think the previous recipe and post were not clear enough on how to make sure that it’s done, so I updated them and hope that will help. I’d love to know if that made a difference if you try it again. But, this bread is more similar to fluffy pre-sliced white bread than a crusty bread, so I still would not expect a crust. If you are looking for a crusty bread, try this almond flour bread instead.
I am trying this recipe for the very first time. It’s in the oven as I type! I am only 30 hours into a Paleo diet shift, and I am so happy to find a paleo bread recipe. I like eating extra virgin olive oil with bread to get more healthy fat into my diet, and this recipe will allow me to do just that. I am pursuing a paleo – possibly keto – diet for health reasons that also include a diagnosis of MS.
I just made the bread above and sadly for me LOLOl it was only 2′ high I am wondering if that is because i mixed it in my Mixmaster not a food processor it tastes yummy but I’m not sure why it didn’t rise higher. the batter was very thick when I put it in the loaf tin Oh well I wil have to try it again LOLOl we will eat it fast as it tastes soooo good
The Paleo diet, also referred to as the "caveman" or "Stone Age" diet, stems from the eating patterns of our ancestors who lived during the Paleolithic era, a time period associated with the development of mankind's tool-making skills, ending around 12,000 years ago. During that time, the women gathered fruit, berries, and vegetables, while the men hunted for meat. In today's modern era, the diet involves mimicking the same eating habits and consuming fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, healthful oils (eg, walnut, olive, coconut, and avocado), meat, fish, shellfish, poultry, and eggs in hopes of leading to a more healthful and disease-free life. The diet also encourages consumption of cage-free eggs and grass-fed meats (lean meat is recommended). It prohibits eating grains, dairy, legumes, potatoes, refined sugar, and refined vegetable oils, because proponents claim these foods appeared only after the agricultural revolution and are associated with inflammation and therefore many chronic conditions including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Not only is the diet touted as a more healthful eating pattern but it's also promoted as beneficial for weight loss. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8t2pdg16t1g
The best part about baking up this bread is that it makes your whole house smell like you’re making cinnamon rolls. Scratch that, the real best part is eating this bread because it tastes like you’re eating cinnamon rolls. The only difference is you won’t be eating a bunch of artificial and processed ingredients, and instead you’ll be getting nourished by foods that your body craves, like flax seed, banana, honey, and more. Here’s a bread that you can really sink your teeth into and be totally happy with what you taste.

I’ve been experimenting with your low carb corn bread recipe this week, not necessarily trying to emulate cornbread specifically but just to make a keto-friendly bread-like food, and that recipe was the first candidate I found browsing your site. I started off with a half recipe (fudging the fractional egg) because I only had around 2 tbsp of flaxmeal (brown, not golden) on hand. I quite enjoyed it, so I bought more flaxmeal and tried the recipe substituting hazelnut flour for almond, and again brown flaxmeal for golden and it was delicious (I gotta lay off! I can’t stop eating it, as I basically haven’t had bread in 3 years!) (brief note: I needed to bake quite a bit longer than you instructed both times.)


Ohhhh! Almond flour and coconut flour! I love it. I have made bread with just coconut flour, and love the texture, but find it too sweet. The almond flour bread I love the taste, but it’s a bit dry. This recipe sounds like a great match. I can’t wait to try it. Thanks for working so hard to find such amazing recipes and then sharing them with the world!
We did the same thing with sunflower sead butter in paleo bread the other day. We ran out of cashew butter (as the recipe called for) and filled in the final put with sunflower seed butter. Top half of the bread turned bright green! Some in the house wouldn’t eat it, but I loved it! And it was pretty cool when we looked up why it happened. Excited to try this recipe, thanks for sharing! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GnLc95VpW5Q
Hi, I just made these this morning. I substituted gelatin eggs for real eggs. I baked them on a cookie sheet—but next time I will put them on parchment paper because they did stick some. I also forgot the baking powder. I baked them for 20 mins. They were crunchy on the outside and gooey in the middle, but still delicious!! I also put them in the toaster after they came out of the oven. I would really love to come up with AIP recipe for these, because they are so darn good!! I probably could have gotten away with just one gelatin egg as well. I will have to experiment—-but if you come up with anything AIP in the future, please let us know! I love your blog!!
Early man didn’t have microwaves, but if they did they surely could have whipped up some of this Paleo bread. Sometimes you need or want bread in a hurry, like if you forgot to make it, or if you realize that a meal would be perfectly complete if it just had some bread to go with it. While there may not be any ancestral connection to our love of bread, it’s hard to argue that it’s become a staple of many diets, and really helps to satiate an appetite. But since it represents a part of the Neolithic time, bread isn’t truly Paleo even if it’s made with Paleo friendly ingredients.
Hi Ginger, I personally haven’t tried making this bread into buns. I think the texture is a bit different, but it may work also. You could bake the batter into an english muffin pan like this one http://amzn.to/1TbU31n or this one http://amzn.to/23RkXeu. Please let me know how it goes if you try it and post a photo here so I can see how they turn out.
The Hiwi are not particularly healthy. Compared to the Ache, a hunter–gatherer tribe in Paraguay, the Hiwi are shorter, thinner, more lethargic and less well nourished. Hiwi men and women of all ages constantly complain of hunger. Many Hiwi are heavily infected with parasitic hookworms, which burrow into the small intestine and feed on blood. And only 50 percent of Hiwi children survive beyond the age of 15.
Thanks for asking (kinda). Back in the day, about two years ago, I baked nonstop. I baked even more than I do now that I have a food blog (which is A LOT). Every day, I would make 4-6 batches of cookies. Then, I’d make nice cream (which was called banana soft serve back then), meal prep for the next two weeks, then spend the night putting together packages for my sisters.

The Lazy Paleo Enthusiast's Cookbook: A Collection of Practical Recipes and Advice on How to Eat Healthy, Tasty Food While Spending as Little Time in the Kitchen as Possible by Sean Robertson. The author is a recovering vegan and in the first half of the book recounts his dietary experiences using some paleo foods to restore his health. You learn that the author's main strategy is to make food in large batches which can be reheated to provide dinners for several days running. The second half of the book contains 28 recipes. Some borderline or nonpaleo ingredients do appear, but most of the recipes are more paleo than not. Published November 15, 2011.
I made its latest version today and absolutely I love it. I like that it does not taste like almond or coconut it tastes like a bread. A verg good bread that it’s not harmful at least with recent knowledge of us because before it I thought whole meal bread is really good for us and I was very proud to my healthy breakfast oats, raw honey and seeds but then they figured out that oats are not harmless I am wondering what is the next thing that will be deleted from my diet:((
Chris Masterjohn has Cholesterol: Your Life Depends on It!, another web site pointing out that the war on cholesterol and the push to put people on statins is misguided. The site argues it is actually polyunsaturated fats, not saturated fats or cholesterol, that contribute to heart disease, cancer, liver damage, and aging. He also has a popular blog. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g5n68qEhqIM
I am studying nutrition and, like you, understand that many foods labeled as paleo weren’t actually consumed by our paleolithic ancestors thousands of years ago. I guarantee elana knows that as well. Labeling a recipe paleo is an easy way to categorize posts so those eating a paleo, or grain and dairy free whole foods diet, know it’s for them. Hope that clears up some of your frustration and or misunderstanding about paleo recipes. enjoy!
A great question to ask is “Does the Paleo diet work?” Here we have a head to head comparison between the Paleo diet and Mediterranean diet in insulin resistant Type 2 Diabetics. The results? The Paleo diet group REVERSED the signs and symptoms of insulin resistant, Type 2 diabetes. The Mediterranean diet showed little if any improvements. It is worth noting that the Mediterranean diet is generally held up by our government as “the diet to emulate” despite better alternatives. You can find an abstract and the complete paper here.
My bread didn’t turn out well at all. I don’t use dairy, so I couldn’t use the yogurt and that might be it. I also has some issues with my coconut cream taking it’s good ole’ time melting and blending, so my “wet” mixture sat longer than it should have and that might have caused some issues. I will try again, but the flavor and consistency reminded me more of a banana bread than a sandwich bread. So far, not a fan. Hope I can make a go of it next time.

You may want to check out my Almond Flour page for tips on baking with almond flour and to check out some additional brands that I use. If you are nut-free, you’ll find my book, Paleo Cooking, very helpful. More than half of the recipes in this New York Times Bestselling cookbook are nut-free, and it has easy recipes for Nut-Free Crackers, Nut-Free Bread and more!


Here is a way to keep Paleo fun by making a batch of Paleo pretzels. It gets boring sometimes eating a certain way, and adding novelty treats like this really makes it seem like you’re not on a diet at all. Half the fun is making these, as you don’t have to stick to the conventional pretzel shape, and can wind them into any design you wish. The other half is eating them, and there’s no worries here, since all of the ingredients conform to the parameters set by the Paleo OK foods list, a combination of coconut flour and almond flour. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKDQrFUQB88
I didn’t have almond flour so substituted 1 cup millet flour and 1 cup sorghum flour for the almond flour, and baked in an 7.5″ x 4.5″ x 2.5″ loaf pan. The loaf was short, about 1.5″ tall, the texture was pleasantly dense and held together well. The taste, however, was pasty (like flour) and the bread was dry. (I noticed afterwards that the sorghum flour package said to substitute 15-20% sorghum flour in your recipe, so that may have affected the taste and dryness.) I tried a slice with a topping of honey, and that was pretty good, but not good enough. So I made croutons, which were delicious. I cut the bread into small cubes and spread them on a cookie sheet, sprayed them with olive oil spray and drizzled 1/2 stick of butter over them, then seasoned generously with Nature’s Seasonings and garlic powder (for a richer crouton, could also sprinkle with parmesan cheese). I tossed them to distribute the seasonings and baked them at 350 degrees about 20 minutes until crunchy. I’ll try the recipe again when I have almond flour. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQDpobq7jYY&t=91s
×