thanks for the reply, but im still confused. the arrowroot you have pictured at the bottom of the recipe is the “flour” not the powder. I used the powder. however, it was hard to find and the only bottle of it that I could find was short of the 1/2 cup required in the recipe. I see you can buy larger quantities of the powder on-line. I added a TBSP of regular baking powder to make up for the short arrowroot powder. It came out pretty good!
Anna are you saying even though you omitted the almond butter and just made the bread with the rest of the ingredients it was exactly as if the almond butte was in the recipe. Was there any difference at all like holding together as well, or maybe it did not rise as much, etc. Can you please explain what was different and which was was better in taste and texture and rising, etc. Thanks
This bread has changed the game on my Keto lifestyle!!!! I have tried so many different Keto breads that I just gave up! They all have to much egg taste or they’re so gritty I cannot even swallow it! This bread was more detailed to make but it is the best tasting (real) bread. It actually smelled like home made bread before I baked it! It has gotten much easier each time. I cut the loaf into 3 large pieces. I freeze two and leave one out to enjoy! I’ve made stuffing with this bread and it was amazing! Just slice thin and leave it out to dry completely until it will easily crumble. It makes amazing french toast! I had French toast with 2 eggs and bacon for breakfast today! Make sure you use sugar free syrup and your in heaven! Lots of melted butter on top!!! Thank you so much for this incredible recipe!

Katrina, I have tried a lot of low carb keto breads and this one really looks interesting. I was suprised to see that you have no baking powder at all in the mixture. Had you tried it and found it produced an undesirable effect, or did this version work so well you never tried it with baking powder? Just wonder if it might lighten it up a bit but hesitate to try it with it if you found it ruined your loaf.
The evolutionary discordance is incomplete, since it is based mainly on the genetic understanding of the human diet and a unique model of human ancestral diets, without taking into account the flexibility and variability of the human dietary behaviors over time.[27] Studies of a variety of populations around the world show that humans can live healthily with a wide variety of diets, and that in fact, humans have evolved to be flexible eaters.[28] Lactose tolerance is an example of how some humans have adapted to the introduction of dairy into their diet. While the introduction of grains, dairy, and legumes during the Neolithic revolution may have had some adverse effects on modern humans, if humans had not been nutritionally adaptable, these technological developments would have been dropped.[29]
I cannot adequately share my enthusiasm for this bread. I’m not much of a bread maker so the tips were very helpful. I went through the effort to get the recommended ingredients and the cost was well worth it. I’ll be making several loaves. I’ve only recently switched to a keto diet and have been disappointed over and over again when I try new recipes as replacements for my favorites. THIS WAS THE FIRST SUCCESS!! Tastes great. I dont question that its bread, no tricking myself to like it. Thank you so much! I can’t wait to try more of your recipes!
Hi Maya, I’m new to your website and I’m anxious to try out this bread recipe. I’m helping my 27 year old son lose some weight. He’s on some pretty potent medication that has caused him to crave carbs thus putting on quite a bit of weight over the past few years. Since I’m his caregiver and also a Certified Nutritionist, I’m looking for some healthy alternatives to make his transition a bit easier and he loves bread. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1qMoIguD8qs

In low carb and keto baking, we’re concerned with two things: 1) keeping carbs low, and 2) still achieving a baked good that has great flavor and texture (because if we can’t gag it down there’s just no point, right? Lol). Low carb bread recipes are usually gluten free and grain free (although we’ve seen a couple that use oat fiber), but then the challenge is to get creative to get the right combination of ingredients to yield something that rises properly and tastes good.
Elizabeth, This recipe is a bit heavy on the eggs because they add structure here; without them, it would be difficult to get the same height without doing quite a bit of experimentation to find a suitable substitute. If you’re looking for a paleo-friendly bread-type of recipe, my Paleo Flatbread may be more useful. It’s more of a wrap or can be made thinner into a crepe, rather than a loaf of bread, but it is delicious. That recipe uses one egg, but I’ve successfully made it using a flax “egg” instead of a regular egg. Sorry I’m not able to be more help, but I hope you like the flatbread if you give it a try!
Dessert is the hardest bad habit to break when you commit to a new and improved healthy eating resolution. The good news is that there are SO many natural alternatives, you can easily hack a way to #TreatYoSelf to your favorite sweets. We’ve seen healthy bean desserts become all the rage, and most of them are refined sugar-free and Paleo-friendly. Since chocolate is everyone’s go-to treat of choice, healthy chocolate recipes are also quite coveted in the diet world. Lucky for you, we dug up 18 Paleo chocolate desserts that are so indulgent, you won’t believe they’re secretly good for you.
Thanks for taking the time to post the Metric measures Pat. I’ve just made my first loaf, which is ok but I misread the ingredients and only put 1/2 tsp of baking powder in the mix ..duh! There’s another one baking right now with the correct amount in . Really looking forward to it. I’m going to slice it up and freeze it in portions so I can take out what I need and toast it. The only downside for me is the almond flour and coconut flour is very expensive in the uk. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AeqwyVcRp7E

Just made this, thank you for the recipe! My loaf pans were too wide so I used 6 Texas size muffin tins and they came out great. I used maple syrup instead of honey because, well, I live in Vermont and my husband sugars. I am fairly new to Paleo and I’ve been an avid baker for decades-I miss baking! I will experiment with this recipe for sure, using it as a base. The first thing I am imagining is lemon poppy seed and baking them in mini muffin tins. Or baking in a cast iron skillet in the oven like corn bread. And maybe a morning glory version. Oooh my world just opened up. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kd4dlNxaPwk


I made this bread last night and it turned out so delicious and moist! My 2 & 4 year old couldn’t get enough of it either which was so exciting to see. I want to start making this bread for my daughters school lunches but it’s a nut-free school. Could the almond flour be replaced by coconut flour? Or any other flour? If so, whould the measurements change of the ingredients? I am not a baker so I am a bit clueless.
mine didn’t rise up as much as the one in the picture either…also it stuck to the bottom of pan in spite of cooking spray…I guess I should have sprayed liberally! waiting for it to cool to cut, though the pieces that were stuck in the pan tasted good…if you use coconut cream instead of the greek yogurt, do you need to refrigerate it to make it thick or does it work in liquid state from the can?
Happy weekend, and round up Sunday! I’m writing you from Colorado where we just had our first-ever, in-person Healthy Glow Co. retreat. I got to spend the weekend with the HGC team and 14 amazing members that make our collective possible. Feeling inspired, refreshed, and SO excited about the community we’ve built. I’ll be sure to share more details of our trip soon, but first let’s talk about these incredible paleo dessert recipes that I rounded up for you guys!
I made my first loaf today and it turned out perfectly. It’s delicious! One thing – I could not get the yeast to proof using honey so I just used a generous pinch of sugar. Worked great. My house is not overly warm this time of year so I put my pizza stone in the oven and set it to warm then turned it off a little while before the dough was ready to rise. Seemed to do the trick. I imagine the stone helped to keep the oven warm enough. The dough rose like a champ. Oh, I also left the ginger out. I’m not sure if it would have been obvious but I’m not a lover of the stuff so just didn’t take the chance. Thanks for a great recipe!
Ostensibly, Grok is "a rather typical hunter–gatherer" living before the dawn of agriculture—an "official primal prototype." He is the poster-persona for fitness author and blogger Mark Sisson's "Primal Blueprint"—a set of guidelines that "allows you to control how your genes express themselves in order to build the strongest, leanest, healthiest body possible, taking clues from evolutionary biology (that's the primal part)." These guidelines incorporate many principles of what is more commonly known as the Paleolithic, or caveman, diet, which started to whet people's appetites as early as the 1960s and is available in many different flavors today. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JaMQfQK1_i8
Made this bread the other night and it is so wonderful!!.Love it slightly warmed with a pat of butter.My only problem is that it did not rise that much so can’t really use for a sandwich.My eggs were not fresh nor my refrigerated flaxseed meal..I used a glass loaf pan (buttered).I did cook at 350 degrees for the 30 min and it came out wonderful!!Thanks so much for the recipe.I love the recipes with honey and/or stevia, sucanat or rapadura.
I am so happy to have found this delicious and easy recipe. I used a regular sized loaf pan and baked it about 5 minutes less time since the loaf is thinner. Also I think I will put a piece of parchment on the bottom of the pan next time as it stuck to the pan a little bit. I thought it had a kind of like a cornbread texture. It is so good though, I believe I will be eating some of this every day for the rest of my life. Can’t wait to try some of the suggested variations!
Every recipe box, whether digital or made of wood, should have an apple crisp recipe. This autumnal treat makes for a delicious breakfast dish or a yummy dessert. One of any crisp’s attractions is its combination of textures. The pecans and walnuts provide crunch and are a good source of fiber and iron. Top this with a coconut-based whipping cream to keep this dessert strictly paleo. 

Fattening cattle with corn changes the lipid balance and is clearly not the natural diet for a grass eating cow. In Simple change in cattle diets could cut E. coli infection researchers have found that when cattle were fed hay or grass for just five days before slaughter, much less E. Coli cells were present in the animal's feces and virtually all surviving E. coli bacteria were not acid-resistant and were killed by human stomach acid. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9eyUSERjrs

The Paleo Answer: 7 Days to Lose Weight, Feel Great, Stay Young by Loren Cordain. The author shows you how to supercharge the Paleo diet for optimal lifelong health and weight loss. Featuring a new prescriptive 7-day plan and surprising revelations from the author's original research, it's the most powerful Paleo guide yet. Published December 20, 2011.

I must admit that when I read all the comments for this recipe I was so nervous to try it even though I’ve been hand-kneeding and baking my own breads without a recipe (an ancient family tradition) for over 20 years. Since I don’t have any background in gluten-free baking but recently changed to a low-carb lifestyle, I didn’t know what to expect. I noticed that a lot of people seemed to have issues with the proofing and resting of the bread dough. In order to eliminate the possibility of this happening, and since I know I understand yeast proofing really well, and knew that I won’t have an issue with dead yeast, I made sure that my kitchen temperature would be really warm so I placed a space heater on my kitchen counter facing the yeast and then later the dough as it rested. In the end, the bread turned out near perfect. The smell and taste was fabulous. The only thing I can say is that my bread pan is a 9X5 so next time I will make 1.5 the recipe. Otherwise, all I can say is this recipe is a winner!!!!
I didn’t read through all 400+ comments, so I don’t know if this has been discussed, but this recipe calls for a really huge amount of baking soda and doesn’t have the huge amount of acidic ingredients needed to balance it. I tried it anyway as written and sure enough, the resulting product smells and tastes like un-neutralized baking soda. Normally a recipe like this would use baking powder, so I tried again, using 1.5 tsp of baking powder instead of the baking soda. I eliminated the vinegar, since its main role would be to neutralize (some of) the baking soda.
In order to simulate a bread-like texture without using gluten, grain free and gluten free bread recipes often use a variety of different flours and binders. We’ve tried so many keto bread recipes that taste way too eggy or too much like almonds or coconut. The trick is to find a combination of ingredients that yields good flavor, as well as bready texture and a loaf that rises nicely. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lM5zHcTPab0

Our ancestors didn't chase cows and chickens around in the wild. They hunted game, antelopes, buffalo, and probably some animals we've never heard of that are long extinct. Their meat was generally quite lean, and provided more healthy omega 3s than meats from modern day animals, even the grass-fed ones, according to Dr. Katz. Many of the plants that thrived back then are also extinct today, making it impossible to truly follow their meal plan, he says.
By far my favorite bread recipe! It turned out golden brown with a great flavor! Super easy and basic ingredients so you don’t have to run to the supermarket before making it. I asked my husband (not paleo or gluten free) to taste it and he thought it was good. That’s quite a compliment because he dislikes most gluten free/paleo things. Just a note, I’m at 9300 feet above sea level and it still raised and turned out delicious! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDWirPJv8Qg
I so miss bread fresh from the oven (I’m going to be adding the yeast)! You are absolutely correct about beaten egg whites creating air pockets. My family has always made buttermilk pancakes from scratch and we always separate the eggs, beat the whites to soft peaks and fold them in at the last minute. The pancakes rise beautifully! Have you tried this with your keto pancakes?
i loved this recipe! my bread did not rise like yours did although i used the recommended pan size. maybe because i used bob’s red mill meal/flour and my eggs were straight out of the fridge. those were the only two factors i could think of. anyways, the bread was delicious and i have longed for bread while following paleo plans. thanks, and i will continue to search for the flour that you recommend and allow my eggs to warm up a bit prior to my next loaf. i will let you know how that worked out.
Some randomized controlled trials have shown the Paleo diet to produce greater short-term benefits than diets based on national nutrition guidelines, including greater weight loss, reduced waist circumference, decreased blood pressure, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cholesterol. However these studies were of short duration (6 months or less) with a small number of participants (less than 40). [4-6] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N80LZL2vw3A
How many eggs did you use when you increased it by 50%? I had a mini loaf pan that was 3 1/2″ by 6″ It came put great but when I got to the center of the loaf I did find a small spot that was still raw dough. Not enough to ruin the loaf though. I used a combination of Bob’s Red Mill almond flour and King Arthur almond flour. Anxious to try it in a full sized loaf pan though if I can figure out how many eggs to use.
I know there is some conflict between whether sweet potatoes are Paleo or not but, since I am a personal training and exercise daily, I still eat them. In the Paleo Bread recipe I substituted 1/2 cup of the almond flour with 1/2 cup of sweet potato flour. I also baked them in 1.5 x 3 inch mini loaf pans for 20 mins instead of 30mins. They turned out really great. Adds a little bit extra nutritional value.
Paleo baked goods are free of gluten, refined sugars, and dairy. If you’ve perfected regular baking and now you’ve gone paleo, you might be surprised at just how different this way of baking is. I find that in order to get the closest simulation of regular bread (i.e., bread that has gluten), it’s often useful to use a combination of a few different paleo-friendly flours.
Hi Jen, It sounds like it needed to bake for longer – this is why it sunk and was still moist. The timing varies by ovens and even different pans. I hope you’ll try it again and just keep it in there for longer. You can cover the top if it starts to brown too much. For the one you made, depending on how moist it was in the middle, you may be able to salvage it somewhat by pan frying the slices.

If you measured correctly, it’s possible that your eggs are smaller than the ones Elana used. My eggs are very large, and the batter comes out perfectly every time. Too bad more recipes don’t use weights or measures for eggs (beaten to make it easy to adjust quantity) to ensure consistent results! Eggs can vary widely in size. 5 jumbo size can easily be 7 smaller eggs.

You’ll stay pretty full on the Paleo diet. Nutrition experts emphasize the importance of satiety, the satisfied feeling that you’ve had enough. You shouldn’t feel hungry on this diet – protein and fiber are filling, and you’ll get plenty of both. One small study of 29 participants published in Nutrition & Metabolism in 2010 found Paleo dieters felt just as full but consumed fewer calories than their Mediterranean counterparts.
Can you put any yeast in the mixture? And if you did, would it help it rise more in addition to tasing more “yeasty”? I have been making (with great results) a browner, wheat colored bread from a recipe called Diedre’s For Real Low Carb Bread. It uses yeast and only has one rise after kneading with my dough hook attachment on my mixer. I would like to try some white bread.
Vitamin D is the one supplement that would be paleo. At least it would be for those of us that don't live outside year round. You can have your D level measured. The low RDAs only prevent definable deficiences, not problems that take a long time to develop. Michael Holick, MD is a leading writer on this subject. This is a 10 page PDF: Vitamin D: importance in the prevention of cancers, type 1 diabetes, heart disease, and osteoporosis and its companion Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease [change PDF to 100% to read]. Or if you prefer, there is an hour video on YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWjvq2GB0uc
The Paleo diet, also referred to as the "caveman" or "Stone Age" diet, stems from the eating patterns of our ancestors who lived during the Paleolithic era, a time period associated with the development of mankind's tool-making skills, ending around 12,000 years ago. During that time, the women gathered fruit, berries, and vegetables, while the men hunted for meat. In today's modern era, the diet involves mimicking the same eating habits and consuming fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, healthful oils (eg, walnut, olive, coconut, and avocado), meat, fish, shellfish, poultry, and eggs in hopes of leading to a more healthful and disease-free life. The diet also encourages consumption of cage-free eggs and grass-fed meats (lean meat is recommended). It prohibits eating grains, dairy, legumes, potatoes, refined sugar, and refined vegetable oils, because proponents claim these foods appeared only after the agricultural revolution and are associated with inflammation and therefore many chronic conditions including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. Not only is the diet touted as a more healthful eating pattern but it's also promoted as beneficial for weight loss. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8t2pdg16t1g
Thank you so much for this recipe! I’ve made it several times and I love it for myself. I have tried many versions: coconut oil, ghee, butter, coconut cream, refrigerated coconut milk from a can, shaken (after a couple of days in the fridge) and full fat yogurt. I always beat my eggs for 2-3 minutes (by hand) until very frothy before adding the wet ingredients then beat them again after incorporating wet ingredients to get them thick. Although I like them all, I have had the best results for rising (and actual ‘bread-like’ texture and loft) from coconut oil and yogurt. My husband eats gluten-free but not paleo so when his favourite GF bread was out at the store he was stuck (he’s a ‘must eat sandwich for lunch’ guy and we’ve tried all the GF varieties in our store, some of them complete rocks!). I offered to make him a loaf and he accepted (he’s had this loaf before but felt it’s texture was more like a banana bread or zucchini bread than sandwich material). I got rave reviews from him today about the bread for his sandwich (made with coconut oil and yogurt). Total convert!!
Hi Kristi, I’m glad you liked the taste! Sorry it didn’t rise for you. It’s hard to say what happened without being in the kitchen with you. Were the peaks in the egg whites not firm enough, or did they fall too much when folding with the rest of the batter? That is the main culprit I can think of, as the egg whites are a big part of what creates the volume in this bread.
Often Keto and Paleo recipes get grouped together which is how I found you…I am on Keto though, and the tapioca flour and applesauce bring the carb amounts up too high. Do you have a low carb alternative for these ingredients? Is there a way to sub coconut flour for the tapioca by adjusting the ratios of the coconut flour to liquid. I may be able to get by using the applesauce (I think that will be ok if no more than 1/4 c,) but would still need a compensating liquid. Any suggestions? I so want this to be my answer to a long search for a decent bread substitute.

This way of eating has made me feel better in so many ways. I just had such a craving For the texture of cake or bread last night that I had a piece of cake and a sandwich wrap! I knew I had to find a way to satisfy that craving and considered eating a sandwich once a week. Now I can do it without too many carbs. Thanks for taking the time to make it come out right. No more carb BINGES for me.
Similarly, any foods that were not easily available to Paleolithic humans are off-limits in this diet, Holley explains. That means processed foods — many of which contain added butter, margarine, and sugar — should not be a part of the paleo diet. The same goes for dairy, which may not have been accessible to Paleolithic humans, and legumes, which many proponents of the diet believe are not easily digestible by the body.

The only bad thing about this bread is that I CAN’T STOP EATING IT! Lol. I’ve been without bread for two months. The first recipe I tried from Pinterest was a flax loaf that was a huge failure. This recipe was easy to make and turned out awesome. I used three eggs instead of four because I only had large/extra large eggs to choose from. It has the texture of banana bread so I originally thought it will be more of a treat vs a sandwich bread. I’ve been putting jams on it but then I saw the suggestion of pesto with tomatoes so I will be trying that next and will also try toasting it. Much thanks to the creator of this recipe and for sharing it!


I love this recipe and I have one slight problem, during baking the top cracks on either one or both sides and puffs up, which crates a separation from the rest of the loaf. Still tastes great though. I’m wondering if it’s from either not mixing enough or mixing too much in the food processor or if there is something else I’m doing wrong? Not sure how I can send you a picture of todays load?!
Hi Julia, If you use a larger size pan than I indicate for the recipe, your batter won’t fill it up and your loaf will be flat. Another example is if you fill a 1/2 cup with 1/2 cup of water, the water comes to the top of the cup, if you transfer that 1/2 cup of water to a 1 cup measuring cup, it will only fill it halfway. That’s what’s happening to the bread when the pan used it too large :-)
Pros – I basically threw this together while two toddlers screamed for my attention (I have no idea what got into them today). My almond flour was clumpy and I didn’t know how to fix it (first time baking with it), I don’t have a mixer so I used a whisk, and I forgot the ground flax until after it was in the pan and had to take the batter out and add it. Yet it turned out. And it tastes great, and it slices! I used the 4 eggs, 1 tsp baking soda and 35 min comment as a guide.
Sounds like your baking soda is old and/or spoiled. It explains the lack of rise, tingling tongue, chemical taste (washing soda [sodium carbonate, I think] is made by heating baking soda [sodium bicarbonate] in big ovens), and maybe the extra salty flavor, too. I’ve had bad baking soda spoil baked goods, and it’s a real bummer. Hope you try again, though.
Hi Danielle, The bread will not rise without the baking powder, but you could try it if you don’t mind that. Some people make homemade baking powder with baking soda, cream of tartar, and arrowroot powder. But, arrowroot is still a very small amount of starch. Divided among the slices, it’s actually fewer carbs than some of the other ingredients (e.g. almond flour has a small amount of carbs also).
In Cooked, Pollan describes how bread might have been first created: Thousands of years ago, someone probably in ancient Egypt discovered a bubbling mash of grains and water, the microbes busily fermenting what would become dough. And unbeknownst to those ancient Egyptians, the fluffy, delicious new substance had been transformed by those microbes. Suddenly the grains provided even more bang for the bite.
A 2015 study in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that 76 people who followed the Paleo diet for 60 days (as well as those who followed vegan, Mediterranean and DASH plans for the same length of time) lost an average of 9 pounds and showed improvement in their blood pressure levels. The effects were greatest and most sustained among people who also attended regular diet support group meetings.
Begin by making your filling, this has a jam consistency. In a medium saucepan, combine raspberries, honey, lemon juice and lemon zest. Heat to a medium to medium high heat, until mixture begins to bubble. Let bubble for 1-2 minutes, then lower heat to a simmer. While simmering, be sure to mash the berries with a wooden spoon. Cook for an additional 2-3 minutes, remove from heat. Add in chia seeds. Let cool for 5-10 minutes before transferring to a glass jar or dish, and place in the fridge to cool completely. This will take about 1 hour, but you can also make the filling and let sit overnight.
While the diet as a whole hasn't been well studied, the benefits of cutting packaged foods from your diet could be huge. According to the Harvard School of Public Health, three quarters of the average American's sodium intake (which is almost double what it should be!) comes from commercially prepared foods. And, one Public Health Nutrition study found that people who cook at least five times a week are 47% more likely to be alive 10 years later compared to those who rely more on processed foods.
Made this for the first time and after reading all the reviews about dense and not rising, decided to separate egg whites and yolks and whisk first the whites and then the yolks to increase volume, as one would for a sponge cake. Must confess to adding a pinch of cream of tartar to the whites, ( this is one of the ingredients in baking powder so shouldn’t upset the purists). I also only had almond meal ( trader joes) unblanched, and substituted fresh lime juice for the vinegar and used 1tbsp olive oil, didn’t have coconut oil. Once all three bowls were mixed thoroughly (1.whites, 2.yolks plus honey, oil and lime juice, and 3. dry ingredients whizzed tog. In processor,) gently fold all together, yolk mix into whites, then dry mix into egg mix . Put into oiled loaf pan and bake as directed……….it turned out just perfect and delicious……..looks like the picture only much darker because of the almond meal…..more like a whole wheat loaf would look…I am so pleased, the added step is worth the trouble, it rose to the top of the pan and very light and easy to slice.
Several examples of recent and relatively speedy human evolution underscore that our anatomy and genetics have not been set in stone since the stone age. Within a span of 7,000 years, for instance, people adapted to eating dairy by developing lactose tolerance. Usually, the gene encoding an enzyme named lactase—which breaks down lactose sugars in milk—shuts down after infancy; when dairy became prevalent, many people evolved a mutation that kept the gene turned on throughout life. Likewise, the genetic mutation responsible for blue eyes likely arose between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. And in regions where malaria is common, natural selection has modified people's immune systems and red blood cells in ways that help them resist the mosquito-borne disease; some of these genetic mutations appeared within the last 10,000 or even 5,000 years. The organisms with which we share our bodies have evolved even faster, particularly the billions of bacteria living in our intestines. Our gut bacteria interact with our food in many ways, helping us break down tough plant fibers, but also competing for calories. We do not have direct evidence of which bacterial species thrived in Paleolithic intestines, but we can be sure that their microbial communities do not exactly match our own. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lTSvNt_hZo
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