Trying to devise an ideal diet by studying contemporary hunter-gatherers is difficult because of the great disparities that exist; for example, the animal-derived calorie percentage ranges from 25% for the Gwi people of southern Africa to 99% for the Alaskan Nunamiut. Descendants of populations with different diets have different genetic adaptations to those diets, such as the ability to digest sugars from starchy foods. Modern hunter-gatherers tend to exercise considerably more than modern office workers, protecting them from heart disease and diabetes, though highly processed modern foods also contribute to diabetes when those populations move into cities.
I have a question for you about eggs. Do you have any particular size or volume of “egg” that you tend to use in your recipes? In most of my cookbooks, an “egg” means a medium sized egg that yields about 50mls by volume, so there are slightly more than 5 eggs in a cup. I tend to buy extra large eggs locally, and I find that when a recipe calls for more than 3 eggs, the end result is quite “egg-y.” I’m going to experiment, but perhaps you would be able to tell me if there is a size or volume of egg that you tend to use in your recipes. (I didn’t see anything specific under the “ingredient” menu on your blog.)
Evolution of the Human Diet: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable by Peter S. Ungar. Diet is key to understanding the ecology and evolution of our distant ancestors and their kin, the early hominins. A study of the range of foods eaten by our progenitors underscores just how unhealthy many of our diets are today. This volume brings together authorities from disparate fields to offer new insights into the diets of our ancestors. Paleontologists, archaeologists, primatologists, nutritionists and other researchers all contribute pieces to the puzzle. The book has four sections: Reconstructed diets based on hominin fossils--tooth size, shape, structure, wear, and chemistry, mandibular biomechanics. Archaeological evidence of subsistence--stone tools and modified bones. Models of early hominin diets based on the diets of living primates--both human and non-human, paleoecology, and energetics. Nutritional analyses and their implications for evolutionary medicine.
How do you account for the differance in calories and fat in this bread recipe from the Healthy Low Carb & Gluten Free Bread that it is modeled after. The basic ingredients are the same with some additions here. This bread says it yields 10 serv. and has 156 cal and 12g fat. The other says 8 serv.and has 267 cal and 24g fat. This doesn’t make sense. I need to keep the fat down so I need to be sure this is lower fat.
This is the best grain-free bread recipe I have ever tried. I didn’t have the loaf pan so I used one of my small casserole dishes and it came out square and a little darker around the edges. I used 1 1/2oz. of coconut oil and mixed it with 1/2oz. of melted butter and it came out really moist. It also came out dark like whole wheat bread, so I am assuming that I used just a little too much flax meal. I love you for taking the time to perfect this!!! I’m thinking of making a spice bread next time. Let you know if it works!!
Made this bread the other night and it is so wonderful!!.Love it slightly warmed with a pat of butter.My only problem is that it did not rise that much so can’t really use for a sandwich.My eggs were not fresh nor my refrigerated flaxseed meal..I used a glass loaf pan (buttered).I did cook at 350 degrees for the 30 min and it came out wonderful!!Thanks so much for the recipe.I love the recipes with honey and/or stevia, sucanat or rapadura. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Fe4jOwAVbY
Cynthia Graber is the co-host of Gastropod and is an award-winning radio and print journalist who covers science and technology, agriculture and food, distant lands, and any other stories that catch her fancy. Her work has been featured in Fast Company, Slate, the Boston Globe, Scientific American, the BBC, and a variety of other magazines, radio shows, and podcasts.
Meet Grok. According to his online profile, he is a tall, lean, ripped and agile 30-year-old. By every measure, Grok is in superb health: low blood pressure; no inflammation; ideal levels of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides. He and his family eat really healthy, too. They gather wild seeds, grasses, and nuts; seasonal vegetables; roots and berries. They hunt and fish their own meat. Between foraging, building sturdy shelters from natural materials, collecting firewood and fending off dangerous predators far larger than himself, Grok's life is strenuous, perilous and physically demanding. Yet, somehow, he is a stress-free dude who always manages to get enough sleep and finds the time to enjoy moments of tranquility beside gurgling creeks. He is perfectly suited to his environment in every way. He is totally Zen.
You’ll stay pretty full on the Paleo diet. Nutrition experts emphasize the importance of satiety, the satisfied feeling that you’ve had enough. You shouldn’t feel hungry on this diet – protein and fiber are filling, and you’ll get plenty of both. One small study of 29 participants published in Nutrition & Metabolism in 2010 found Paleo dieters felt just as full but consumed fewer calories than their Mediterranean counterparts. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWG6RJpPURE
While going bonkers and eating chocolate creations 3 times per day is unnecessary (and would sorta defeat the point of Whole30, and Paleo in general) I DO think it’s a great time to explore all the Paleo dessert options out there – so we can have our cake (quite literally) – and still feel awesome after eating it. That’s what Paleo treats and desserts are all about in my opinion – and it’s NO secret that I’m quite the fan of dessert, just check out the “sweet treats” section of the blog!
WOW! WOW! WOW! Did I say Wow! This is exactly what I have been looking for, a low carb bread as I am a diabetic. I did not know that arrowroot is a carb but I calculated that 1/2c. equals 72 g. of carbohydrates roughly. So not too bad. I have enjoyed every recipe I have tried so far. I can’t tell you how happy I am that I accidentally discovered your website. Keep up the good work!! I just can’t stop making everything I see. ? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lpygmaabb9E
A decade ago, when I was on the low-fat craze, I’d make fluffy cakes using no butter/fat, replacing it with apple sauce, which gives moisture and a soft texture. These days, I’m a low-carb girl, but a 1/4 cup of apple sauce divided by 4 = only 1 tablespoon (per roll/per 2nd day). I’m okay with that, especially because I substitute half the tapioca flour (high-carb) for whey protein powder to cut a few carbs that way. 🙂
Shandeline, if you use a larger size pan than I indicate for the recipe, your batter won’t fill it up and your loaf will be flat. An example is if you fill a 1/2 cup with 1/2 cup of water, the water comes to the top of the cup, if you transfer that 1/2 cup of water to a 1 cup measuring cup, it will only fill it halfway. That’s what’s happening to the bread when the pan used it too large. I’m so glad that the bread tasted wonderful!
I tried this recipe and it is not at all easy to incorporate 1/2 the egg whites in the food processor. When attempting to pulse just 2-3 times, only part of the egg whites incorporated, leaving 1/2 the whipped egg whites still sitting at the top of the mixture. I then had to use a spatula to force it down and pulsed 3 more times and ended up with a heavy batter because the egg whites completely fell. Then trying to fold the mixture into the rest of the egg whites was like trying to fold in cookie dough. The result was a loaf of baked eggs whites that had clumps of batter in the middle. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwmPsvCuzvo
The digestive abilities of anatomically modern humans, however, are different from those of Paleolithic humans, which undermines the diet's core premise. During the 2.6-million-year-long Paleolithic era, the highly variable climate and worldwide spread of human populations meant that humans were, by necessity, nutritionally adaptable. Supporters of the diet mistakenly presuppose that human digestion has remained essentially unchanged over time.
Autoimmunity is a process in which our bodies own immune system attacks “us.” Normally the immune system protects us from bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The immune system identifies a foreign invader, attacks it, and ideally clears the infection. A good analogy for autoimmunity is the case of tissue rejection after organ donation. If someone requires a new heart, lung kidney or liver due to disease or injury, a donor organ may be an option. The first step in this process is trying to find a tissue “match”. All of us have molecules in our tissues that our immune system uses to recognize self from non-self. If a donated organ is not close enough to the recipient in tissue type the immune system will attack and destroy the organ. In autoimmunity, a similar process occurs in that an individuals own tissue is confused as something foreign and the immune system attacks this “mislabeled” tissue. Common forms of autoimmunity include Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus, and Vitiligo to name only a tiny fraction of autoimmune diseases. Elements of autoimmunity are likely at play in conditions as seemingly unrelated as Schizophrenia, infertility, and various forms of cancer.
Coconut flour is a great alternative when you need to avoid almond flour because of a nut allergy, or for any other reason. With a couple easy tips, coconut flour can also yield delicious gluten free baked goods. Coconut flour is very high in fiber and subsequently absorbs a lot of liquid, so as a general rule, it’s recommended to use the coconut flour and liquid at the same ratio. Coconut flour can also result in very dense and/or dry and crumbly baked goods, so it’s important not to use too much coconut flour, and to use other ingredients to lighten the texture. This is why a lot of recipes that call for coconut flour also call for a lot of eggs. However, then the issue is that the baked goods have an overly eggy taste. Because of this, I prefer to use coconut flour in conjunction with other paleo-friendly flours instead of using it on its own. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEWaInxB4aI
hi – thanks for the recipe…we LOVE all your recipes in your books and blogs..and we are a Paleo and dairy free..Paleo my husband and son HAS to because of dairy intolerance. I would like to mention that those following a strict Paleo diet need to omit the Flax. Flax is not a paleo ingredient as it is a cultivated grain. I have omitted the flax in your recipes when called for and you never miss it. Thanks again for all of your hardwork and recipes!!!
We cannot time travel and join our Paleo ancestors by the campfire as they prepare to eat; likewise, shards of ancient pottery and fossilized teeth can tell us only so much. If we compare the diets of so-called modern hunter-gatherers, however, we see just how difficult it is to find meaningful commonalities and extract useful dietary guidelines from their disparate lives (see infographic). Which hunter–gatherer tribe are we supposed to mimic, exactly? How do we reconcile the Inuit diet—mostly the flesh of sea mammals—with the more varied plant and land animal diet of the Hadza or !Kung? Chucking the many different hunter–gather diets into a blender to come up with some kind of quintessential smoothie is a little ridiculous. "Too often modern health problems are portrayed as the result of eating 'bad' foods that are departures from the natural human diet…This is a fundamentally flawed approach to assessing human nutritional needs," Leonard wrote. "Our species was not designed to subsist on a single, optimal diet. What is remarkable about human beings is the extraordinary variety of what we eat. We have been able to thrive in almost every ecosystem on the Earth, consuming diets ranging from almost all animal foods among populations of the Arctic to primarily tubers and cereal grains among populations in the high Andes.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogf0TuIpffg
I have done this many times in many different ways. I used a regular size muffins pan and make dinner rolls for the holidays. English muffins rings for burger size buns, and whoopee pie pans for slider size buns. I use a standard size ice cream scoop for the rolls and slider buns (1 level scoop) and 2 scoops for the larger burger buns. Usually bake rolls and sliders for 20-25 minutes and for the bigger buns, start checking them at 25-30 minutes. Hope this encourages you to experiment,
The most common reason that any bread falls is that it needed to bake for longer. That being said, I’ll be perfectly honest – sometimes this keto bread recipe falls anyway, even despite doing everything else right. Fortunately this isn’t a huge deal because it still tastes delicious – IF you baked it for long enough and the center is cooked through. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUvRMTnEC5M
Hi Sonda, glad you like it! I use a free nutrition calculator on the website sparkrecipes.com, which generates the nutrition table. You just put in all your ingredients and number of portions and it does the rest of the work for you. I cannot guarantee whatever comes out is 100% accurate, it is thought to be a guide. If you need to rely on nutrition info for health reasons, you’d have to make your own calculations.
Coconut flour is a great alternative when you need to avoid almond flour because of a nut allergy, or for any other reason. With a couple easy tips, coconut flour can also yield delicious gluten free baked goods. Coconut flour is very high in fiber and subsequently absorbs a lot of liquid, so as a general rule, it’s recommended to use the coconut flour and liquid at the same ratio. Coconut flour can also result in very dense and/or dry and crumbly baked goods, so it’s important not to use too much coconut flour, and to use other ingredients to lighten the texture. This is why a lot of recipes that call for coconut flour also call for a lot of eggs. However, then the issue is that the baked goods have an overly eggy taste. Because of this, I prefer to use coconut flour in conjunction with other paleo-friendly flours instead of using it on its own.
Even if eating only foods available to hunter–gatherers in the Paleolithic made sense, it would be impossible. As Christina Warinner of the University of Zurich emphasizes in her 2012 TED talk, just about every single species commonly consumed today—whether a fruit, vegetable or animal—is drastically different from its Paleolithic predecessor. In most cases, we have transformed the species we eat through artificial selection: we have bred cows, chickens and goats to provide as much meat, milk and eggs as possible and have sown seeds only from plants with the most desirable traits—with the biggest fruits, plumpest kernels, sweetest flesh and fewest natural toxins. Cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts and kale are all different cultivars of a single species, Brassica oleracea; generation by generation, we reshaped this one plant's leaves, stems and flowers into wildly different arrangements, the same way we bred Welsh corgis, pugs, dachshunds, Saint Bernards and greyhounds out of a single wolf species. Corn was once a straggly grass known as teosinte and tomatoes were once much smaller berries. And the wild ancestors of bananas were rife with seeds.
The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans continue to recognize the nutritional benefits of whole grains and recommend individuals make sure one-half of the grains they consume daily are whole grains. A 2016 meta-analysis of 45 cohort studies, published in The BMJ, looked at the relationship between whole grain consumption and the risk of various diseases including CVD and cancer.5 Researchers concluded that intake of whole grains is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, CVD, cancers, respiratory and infectious diseases, and diabetes. Furthermore, a 2017 study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that when subjects consumed whole grains vs refined grains, inflammation was reduced.6
I made this as written using the pan that Elana linked to and was a little disappointed with the height. A friend of mine said she makes the gluten free bread with a 4″x4″ pyrex pan because it gets taller and better for sandwiches, so i tried the Paleo bread again using her idea. It got taller, but the top looks like a volcano erupted. I’m not quite sure how to get a smoother top or what i did wrong for this to happen.
Hi hi, not sure if this will help but you can use chia seeds in place of eggs. 1 tbsp to 4-5 tbsp of water. Whisk and let it sit in the fridge for 15 minutes. You may need to add more water if the mix is too thick, when I make it I aim for the consistency of raw egg, so goopy but a little runny. You can sub 1 tbsp of chia seeds for 1 egg in any recipe, Goodluck!!
This has been happening to me too! I make it exactly how the recipe is written. I tried baking it longer and its still hollow in the middle and mushy. It used to come out perfect for me but the last 4 times it has been this way. I just recently moved and made the first loaf in the new oven and same thing!! So frustrating. Maybe cover it with foil and cook it even longer than 35 min? What rack should it be on? Please help!! I can’t live without my paleo bread!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AxOnEg6hXs
So.. let’s talk about the needed part. Quick, what’s the one thing you can’t live without, food wise? That you NEED!! Here’s what I hear a lot when I explain the Paleo or grain free style of eating. “Oh my Goodness, how can I live without bread or a good sandwich bread?” Well ya, bread is so delicious and I don’t always make paleo bread, but when I do, it’s usually for a good reason.
Hi Anita, I double checked my carton egg whites. 3/4 cup of egg whites is equivalent to 4 large whole eggs, not 4 large egg whites. Mine has a chart for converting whole eggs, and the conversion for egg whites only is below the chart. It says 2 tablespoons of liquid egg whites are equivalent to the egg white of 1 whole egg. So, 12 large egg whites would be 24 tablespoons, or 1 1/2 cups as written in the recipe. Hope this helps!
ok my bread did not quite look like this.it had ammonia scents. serious…. seriously working recipes….open to suggestion…my husband’s mum was a a baker…..I fail at every attempt to provide. Your assistance is helpful.thx I am the ever so lucky lin..plan to stay lucky….(ps do this b/c my bs is borderline.fasting bs +90……..and though, my spouse refuses to acknowledge it he has issues as wel).180 after a mango whatever…I love this man, and plan to keep him with me. forever….pls assist..so tired of numbers that are compromised….bull ..we are a unique community because we care…many others are impacted, they just do not connect… We are the only people who appear to care about what elevated glucose does to people….I care for my mum…….she is blind…..confused……multiple strokes..pls, keep helping…Mom was a pilot, a photograhpher, an independent woman from the age of 15. Now, she lves in a bedroom, vision gone, and momory deplleted…….life does not have to end this way. She loves your recipes……I prep them……you have made her happy…love, lucky lin………..
A strict paleo diet does not allow dairy products because hunter-gatherers did not milk cows. Some paleo dieters say dairy is OK, especially if it is grass-fed because grass-fed butter, for example, has more omega-3s. Fermented dairy products are also OK for some paleo eaters because they have a lower content of lactose and casein, the two concerns paleo dieters have with dairy.
Hi Howard, You’re right that this bread doesn’t rise much – the volume comes mostly from whipping the egg whites. If the whites fell too much, the bread might not be tall enough. But even if they didn’t, it might still be shorter than some other tall bread loaves. Feel free to multiply the recipe by 1.5 if you prefer a taller loaf. I’m glad you liked the flavor and texture!
Hi Kim, thank you for your feedback. I think it’s interesting that the recipe turned out well using coconut flour instead. I would love it if you could post a photo of your bread here in the comments so I can see it. Substituting coconut flour for almond flour is tricky, and I think it worked out for you because you cut the amount of flour added in half. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcHTNdMiVdA
Hi Christy, It might be a little more difficult, but in theory possible. You’d need to stir the dry ingredients, then use a hand mixer instead of food processor to mix them with the butter. Then, after beating the egg whites separately, you’d need to mix in part of them, trying not to break them down, then fold in the rest once it’s easier to fold.
Bread was phenomenal!! I followed the recipe exactly, I had a bread pan that was about an inch wider than yours but bread still rose. Looks great, looks just like a loaf of banana bread! The bread is very buttery in flavor, I can’t have more than one slice it’s pretty rich. It’s a dense bread like banana bread. I was SO excited when I pulled it out of the oven and it looked and tasted good I did a little “I made BREAD!” dance. Alas, bread, I have missed you… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CSrH4elI5uc
wow, I have tried to make a good gluten free bread for about a year and this tops all of the recipes I’ve tried. I have to agree with the comment that most gluten-free/grain-free breads are eggy … this one is not and it tastes great. I just enjoyed a piece with boursin tomato pesto. Thank you for the great recipe. I will be trying many more of your recipes. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ni9XJ90f-Bc
Help! I followed the recipe to the letter. I used butter and greek yogurt. Something went horribly wrong. I used 88grams of butter as i don’t have tablespoons (converted on the internet) and organic micro fine almond flour. My mixture was not a batter it resembled a pastry mix. What am I doing wrong. I think its the flour? I live in England so have to find where I can purchase the product over here.
Arrowroot Starch: You may also see arrowroot starch labeled as arrowroot flour or arrowroot powder. It’s made from tubers traditionally from a plant called Maranta arundinacea, but commercially it’s often found as a mixture of various starches, including starch from the cassava root. Similar to tapioca starch, arrowroot starch is used in paleo baking to improve the texture of baked goods, lightening them up a bit, and help with browning.
I cut the bread into thin slices and it is great toasted. I made a sandwich for my husband with bacon, lettuce and tomato and when I handed it to him he looked at me funny and after he took his first bite he asked me: “where did you buy this bread, can we eat bread now?” lol…. I told him I had made the bread with almond flour instead of wheat and he was thrilled.
WOW! This bread is amazing! I have Gestational Diabetes, and have been struggling with bread since it has been spiking my sugars. Normally I don’t each much of it, but I was just craving it today. So I made a loaf and it is delicious! I went through the comments because I only have a full size loaf pan, and did as someone else mentioned, increased the recipe by .5 (for the eggs did 8 eggs rather than 7), and it came out the perfect size and absolutely delicious. Looking forward to enjoying it the rest of the week. I used a glass full size loaf and cooked for 40 minutes at 350 degrees. I topped it with extra flax seeds because I too love the nutty flavor of flax.
Alyssa, one more thing. Both the bowl and the beaters need to be spotlessly clean. If there is one hint of oil anywhere the whites will not beat properly. Nicole is correct about not using a plastic bowl. Plastic will even absorb oil to say nothing of the microscopic amounts that get into the surface when it’s scratched. When baking it is always best to use a metal or glass bowl for all of your mixing. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7gZZpXmG2MU
I made this bread twice. The first time I followed your recipe exactly, but it came out dry and sort of tasteless. I think it’s because of my elevation and how dry the climate is here, so I added about a 1/4 c maple syrup the second time I made it and it’s perfect! I really like this recipe, and I hope others at high and dry climates don’t give up on it if they have the same problem.
So, it’s my LAST DAY of the Whole30 (and perhaps yours, too!) the last day of January, and it’s time to welcome some Paleo treats back into my life. And yours, of course. It’s almost Valentines Day, right?! And – maybe it’s just me – but I can’t do Valentines Day without my fair share of chocolate. Luckily there are so many easy, deliciously indulgent chocolate recipes that taste classically rich but are made without any unhealthy ingredients. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B0CG_84_7s8
I made this bread last night and it turned out so delicious and moist! My 2 & 4 year old couldn’t get enough of it either which was so exciting to see. I want to start making this bread for my daughters school lunches but it’s a nut-free school. Could the almond flour be replaced by coconut flour? Or any other flour? If so, whould the measurements change of the ingredients? I am not a baker so I am a bit clueless.
Delicious! I had to use white rice flour as I didn’t have coconut and it wasn’t available at the store across the street. It smelled a bit odd, but tastes great! Anyone have any ideas as to why all my breads come out the height of biscotti (ok, maybe a little taller, but not much)? I use a Pyrex glass loaf pan. I try to avoid using Aluminum cookware and I’m tempted to try the cast iron pan that several people raved about, but I am definitely looking for a sandwich bread shape. I would love some feedback on that.
Good Calories, Bad Calories: Fats, Carbs, and the Controversial Science of Diet and Health by Gary Taubes expounds on his 2002 article in the NY Times (What if It's All Been a Big Fat Lie?) and then in Science Magazine (see below). He shows how public health data has been misinterpreted to mark dietary fat and cholesterol as the primary causes of coronary heart disease. Deeper examination, he says, shows that heart disease and other diseases of civilization appear to result from increased consumption of refined carbohydrates: sugar, white flour and white rice. Or in other words, without using the word Paleolithic, he justifies the paleo diet. Here is an excellent chapter by chapter summary of the book [archive.org].
Hey Deena, I also live in Kansas City and I’ve made this bread 2 times, also making it right now. The first time it came out perfect. The second time it didn’t rise as mush as the first but the bread was still better then any other. I always make sure the house is (hot) and everything is done by the stove 😉 I make it when no one is home but me… You can do it!!
Make it Paleo: Over 200 Grain Free Recipes For Any Occasion by Bill Staley and Hayley Mason. The book shows you how easy it is to take any dish and Make it Paleo! Adapted from Chinese, French, Mexican and classic American meals, the over 200 recipes are each accompanied by good photos and notes to ensure you recreate each dish with ease. Most recipes are ones that can be found in an ordinary cookbook. Butter and vinegar are also used, which I do not consider paleo. Published October 20, 2011.
Thank you Lexi for this awesome, super quick recipe!!! I have been trying out so many different kinds of quick breads with clean ingredients and somehow they take longer. This is will our go to bread, so thank you!! I have tried them twice and both times were awesome! Second time I tried a little variation with adding some rolled oat flour and it did not change it in any noticeable manner. Apparently too much of almonds have disadvantages on the body. I will continue experimenting with adding a little bit of other flours but big THANK YOU for this easy tasty simple recipe. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NdlQxISNpwY
Our bodies need much more protein than the average person consumes. In fact, protein accounts for only 15 percent of the average person’s daily calories, while 19 to 35 percent of the average hunter-gatherer diet was comprised of protein. This was due to the high consumption of meat, seafood, and other animal products prevalent in contemporary approaches to Paleo eating.
By latest count, about 800 Hiwi live in palm thatched huts in Colombia and Venezuela. In 1990 Ana Magdalena Hurtado and Kim Hill—now both at Arizona State University in Tempe—published a thorough study (pdf) of the Hiwi diet in the neotropical savannas of the Orinoco River basin in Southwestern Venezuela. Vast grasslands with belts of forest, these savannas receive plenty of rain between May and November. From January through March, however, precipitation is rare: the grasses shrivel, while lakes and lagoons evaporate. Fish trapped in shrinking pools of water are easy targets for caiman, capybaras and turtles. In turn, the desiccating lakes become prime hunting territory for the Hiwi. During the wet season, however, the Hiwi mainly hunt for animals in the forest, using bows and arrows. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5b1YEsmGb1I