It appears that there are many gluten free baking powders out there, so I’m not sure if there’s some reason for avoiding baking powder. But baking soda is four times as powerful as baking powder. (In fact, a teaspoon of baking powder contains 1/4 tsp of baking soda, 1/2 tsp of acids, and 1/4 tsp of filler.) So this recipe calling for 1.5 tsp of baking soda is like putting two TABLESPOONS of baking powder into this little tiny loaf, which is a crazy amount. Using 1.5 tsp of baking POWDER is much more reasonable, and that’s 3/8 tsp of baking soda. Note also that the tablespoond of vinegar is about sufficient to neutralize 1/2 tsp of the baking soda, so my substitution should give about the same actual leavening power as the original recipe. (Another way to make this recipe better would be to just reduce the baking soda so that the amount used is completely neutralized.)

I made this bread the other day following the recipe to the T, and although it tasted delicious, I did have some problems with it. I used the same size pan and my bread came out to be about half as tall as whats pictured. Also, the first time I took it out of the oven it was still raw inside even after cooking for quite a long time, so I had to put it back in. This wouldnt be a problem, except I found that when it was finally all cooked through, It had such a thick crust on top that I couldn’t cut it without it crumbling all to pieces. Any suggestions on how to get it to rise more and how to prevent the ultra-thick crust from forming on top?
Thank you! I recently have gone grain free and have been trying different bread recipes. By far this is one of the best! I live in CO too, at 8000 ft so I made sure I had the right size pan. I love that I can use this as a base recipe and make it savory or sweet. My eat whatever he wants BF even liked it and he rarely thinks any of my healthier recipes taste good! It’s all in his head!! I am working on converting him too though :-)
According to Adrienne Rose Johnson, the idea that the primitive diet was superior to current dietary habits dates back to the 1890s with such writers as Dr. Emmet Densmore and Dr. John Harvey Kellogg. Densmore proclaimed that "bread is the staff of death," while Kellogg supported a diet of starchy and grain-based foods.[11] The idea of a Paleolithic diet can be traced to a 1975 book by gastroenterologist Walter Voegtlin,[7]:41 which in 1985 was further developed by Stanley Boyd Eaton and Melvin Konner, and popularized by Loren Cordain in his 2002 book The Paleo Diet.[8] The terms caveman diet and stone-age diet are also used,[12] as is Paleo Diet, trademarked by Cordain.[13]
Anna are you saying even though you omitted the almond butter and just made the bread with the rest of the ingredients it was exactly as if the almond butte was in the recipe. Was there any difference at all like holding together as well, or maybe it did not rise as much, etc. Can you please explain what was different and which was was better in taste and texture and rising, etc. Thanks

Autoimmunity is a process in which our bodies own immune system attacks “us.” Normally the immune system protects us from bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The immune system identifies a foreign invader, attacks it, and ideally clears the infection. A good analogy for autoimmunity is the case of tissue rejection after organ donation. If someone requires a new heart, lung kidney or liver due to disease or injury, a donor organ may be an option. The first step in this process is trying to find a tissue “match”. All of us have molecules in our tissues that our immune system uses to recognize self from non-self. If a donated organ is not close enough to the recipient in tissue type the immune system will attack and destroy the organ. In autoimmunity, a similar process occurs in that an individuals own tissue is confused as something foreign and the immune system attacks this “mislabeled” tissue. Common forms of autoimmunity include Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Lupus, and Vitiligo to name only a tiny fraction of autoimmune diseases. Elements of autoimmunity are likely at play in conditions as seemingly unrelated as Schizophrenia, infertility, and various forms of cancer.
While I haven’t made this recipe, I’ve used flaxmeal in a lot of muffin recipes, and on a occasion I’ve noticed those same gossamer-type strings after a few days. My best guess is it has something to do with flax, although I’m not sure what causes them to develop. Some recipes I use flaxmeal in never develop the strings, and some do, but it definitely only happens in breads where I use flaxmeal. I think the food is still safe to eat though! I wish I knew exactly what causes it too… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_sE-LIUjxog
You’ll stay pretty full on the Paleo diet. Nutrition experts emphasize the importance of satiety, the satisfied feeling that you’ve had enough. You shouldn’t feel hungry on this diet – protein and fiber are filling, and you’ll get plenty of both. One small study of 29 participants published in Nutrition & Metabolism in 2010 found Paleo dieters felt just as full but consumed fewer calories than their Mediterranean counterparts.
Well something is wrong it keeps telling me a problem has occurred with the website and realoading. I didn’t use any wheat flour only the sunflower seed flour I made. I whipped the egg whites with some cream of tarter. I will try your blender idea. I did not take a picture but it came out heavy and dense but it did rise pretty good considering I toasted the sunflower flour after I made the flour because I did t know I was supposed to do it before. It made it a little freaky. I will cut back on the butter next time. I can’t tell you how much better the tast was from toasting the flour. Ok I better stop my computer does not want to cooperate. Thank you so much I will be in touch again thanks for the great recipes.
For those who were considering ordering Paleo bread from the Julian Bakery online, just a word of caution: beware! The bad reviews are really true, and I’m not one who usually does any online reviews. I have ordered both the almond and the coconut breads for awhile. I am not sure what to make of the taste of them, but the almond is definitely a no-go for me. The coconut was palatable, if you chug down some liquid with it and pretend you’re not about to choke! It’s gagging, tasteless, and soggy-at-times bread, but I guess I was desperate for a slice, truly desperate to think it was edible. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDoRiF8zj5Y
Thank you for taking care of us who need your recipes! I recently found out that tapioca comes from the cassava plant and that is where they get cyanide from, so I know longer eat it and found out that I was allergic to it. If its not refined enough, it is a problem for many people who eat it and don’t know why they don’t feel good. You might want to consider not using it or xanthan gum or guar gum in any of your recipes either. They come from Pakistan and India and cause stomach distress in many people as they are a bean. Guar gum is used in oil fracking so it’s really not a great ingredient to be putting into food either!
For most people the fact the Paleo diet delivers the best results is all they need. Improved blood lipids, weight loss, and reduced pain from autoimmunity is proof enough.  Many people however are not satisfied with blindly following any recommendations, be they nutrition or exercise related. Some folks like to know WHY they are doing something. Fortunately, the Paleo diet has stood not only the test of time, but also the rigors of scientific scrutiny.
Proponents of the Paleo diet follow a nutritional plan based on the eating habits of our ancestors in the Paleolithic period, between 2.5 million and 10,000 years ago. Before agriculture and industry, humans presumably lived as hunter–gatherers: picking berry after berry off of bushes; digging up tumescent tubers; chasing mammals to the point of exhaustion; scavenging meat, fat and organs from animals that larger predators had killed; and eventually learning to fish with lines and hooks and hunt with spears, nets, bows and arrows.
I made this bread last night and it turned out so delicious and moist! My 2 & 4 year old couldn’t get enough of it either which was so exciting to see. I want to start making this bread for my daughters school lunches but it’s a nut-free school. Could the almond flour be replaced by coconut flour? Or any other flour? If so, whould the measurements change of the ingredients? I am not a baker so I am a bit clueless.
I suggest blending the almond/sunflower seed butter with the honey FIRST, before adding the other wet ingredients. I also mix the salt in during that step. I blend (hand mixer) after adding each egg. Doing so helps prevent pockets of saltiness in your final product (esp. if you’re using a large crystal salt, like gray Celtic sea salt), and also keeps the honey from sinking to the bottom during mixing. The sunflower seed batter was very smooth and easy to portion out. Again, I love this recipe! Thanks so much for it!
I just made this tonight…I must say I was NOT holding out much hope, but O-M-G…it turned out delicious!! I didn’t have flax seeds (I used Chia seeds instead) and I didn’t have flaxseed meal…but had Flaxseed milled….and hey…it worked!! Thank you so much for the recipe. My only issue was that the top didn’t brown, it stayed kind of white-ish, I didn’t want to leave it in any longer cause I was afraid of over-cooking…any tips for getting the top to brown?
Trick And Treat - how 'healthy eating' is making us ill by Barry Groves. The author is one of the world's most outspoken proponents of a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet. This book is an account of how and why the health-care establishment has got the concept of 'healthy eating' so wrong. Whereas Taubes work (see above) is a fairly straight forward review of the existing science, Groves expands into the politics of medical research and treatment to a much greater extent. "Trick and Treat" is divided into two parts. Part One describes the corruption in the health industry, points out the problems inherent in a high-carb, low-fat diet, and then prescribes a diet that leads to good health. The prescribed diet is high in fat - specifically animal fat, not polyunsaturated vegetable fat - and low in carbohydrates, with 60-70% of calories from fat, 15-25% of calories from protein, and a mere 10-15% of calories from carbohydrates. Part Two describes numerous diseases the author claims are the result of high carbohydrate consumption. These range from life-threatening disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer to less serious problems such as acne, near-sightedness and dental problems. The Amazon reviews average to 4+ stars.
Thank you so much! I didn’t have any flax for the first couple of batches, so subbed extra almond flour, then made it my bread machine and it was a hit. But for this batch, I doubled to make two loaves using the ground golden flax and baked it in the oven, and it was even better!!! My son who has celiacs loves it. This is a godsend with school lunches coming up again. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gn1DcZKU53A

And also I wanted to share that as far as converting measurements to grams…if you look on the bag it will tell you the conversion. For example, my almond flour is 1/4 cup = 28g. This is much more accurate than using a generic conversion chart. Had I used the one listed above in the comments I would have nearly doubled the amount of almond flour. This bread is sadly expensive for me to make…worth it, but expensive. I will be able to get two loaves from one $10 bag of almond flour. Counting eggs and all other ingredients, that’s pricey for 12 slices of bread. However, you get what you pay for, you know? Nutritious food isn’t always cheap, but for your body it should be necessary. I’m learning this as I go. Again, I appreciate this recipe so much!

I wish I had taken a photo because this bread is gorgeous! My husband (who is anti-healthy food) said “I see bread like that and I want to eat it…but since you told me it was made with almonds I won’t, out of spite”…and then 10 minutes later…”that would taste really good toasted with butter” (and a big chunk was missing from the loaf). So easy to make with ingredients I always have on hand. Bravo! I will be making this weekly!
This is the second incarnation of Paleo Bread attempted by the TGIPaleo gang, and they’ve made a few adjustments and seem to have gotten the hang of this. This version keeps the coconut flour but does away with the flax and the arrowroot flour. Instead they’re using egg whites and applesauce to get the job done, and they seem pretty pleased with themselves, as we have yet to locate a third version. Try both and see which one you like best, because they really are different styles of the same sort of bread.
I wish I had taken a photo because this bread is gorgeous! My husband (who is anti-healthy food) said “I see bread like that and I want to eat it…but since you told me it was made with almonds I won’t, out of spite”…and then 10 minutes later…”that would taste really good toasted with butter” (and a big chunk was missing from the loaf). So easy to make with ingredients I always have on hand. Bravo! I will be making this weekly!
The Paleo concept is new for most people and this newness can spark many questions. We like people to not only read about and educate themselves on this topic but also to “get in and do it.” Experience is perhaps the best teacher and often cuts through any confusion surrounding this way of eating. Now, all that considered, there are still some common counter arguments to the Paleo diet that happen with sufficient frequency that a whole paper was written on it. Enjoy: Evolutionary Health Promotion. A consideration of common counter-arguments.
Thanks so much for the link love, dear Elana! I’m so, so happy you are enjoying our bees’ honey! :-) I’ve been making a similar paleo bread of late, but mine doesn’t contain coconut flour or ACV. I’m intrigued with your variations, but more importantly I know it’s good as you have just posted this recipe and I’ve already seen folks reference it in their posts! Now that’s a stellar recommendation, my friend! ;-)
Made with peanut butter instead of almond butter because that’s what I had. I could taste the coconut (which I like), but I will try substituting butter for the coconut oil next time (or half butter half coconut oil), as I am trying to find a good sandwich bread recipe for my picky 5 year old. It’s like a banana bread consistency, but when lightly toasted with butter, reminds me of regular wheat bread. Delicious, and will definitely make again! Thank you for the recipe!

Sometimes you don’t need a loaf of bread, and you just need enough for yourself to make a sandwich or to serve as a side to a hearty Paleo chili. This single serve recipe can easily be multiplied if needed, but it’s best when used as a one-serving bread when you don’t have the time, desire, or need for more than just enough for yourself. The way they’ve figure out how to make this Paleo friendly and ready to go in just a few minutes is impressive. It makes the perfect companion to all sorts of soups and stews, as the bookends to a sandwich, or as an accompaniment to eggs and bacon.
The only downside is that it is small and we eat almost all of it in a day! I’d love to make several loaves at a time and freeze them. Have you tried freezing it? How do you wrap it and how long does it last in the freezer? Thanks so much for this recipe, it’s made going paleo so much easier for my family, especially when I think about school lunches!
Some Paleo dieters emphasize that they never believed in one true caveman lifestyle or diet and that—in the fashion of Sisson's Blueprint—they use our evolutionary past to form guidelines, not scripture. That strategy seems reasonably solid at first, but quickly disintegrates. Even though researchers know enough to make some generalizations about human diets in the Paleolithic with reasonable certainty, the details remain murky. Exactly what proportions of meat and vegetables did different hominid species eat in the Paleolithic? It's not clear. Just how far back were our ancestors eating grains and dairy? Perhaps far earlier than we initially thought. What we can say for certain is that in the Paleolithic, the human diet varied immensely by geography, season and opportunity. "We now know that humans have evolved not to subsist on a single, Paleolithic diet but to be flexible eaters, an insight that has important implications for the current debate over what people today should eat in order to be healthy," anthropologist William Leonard of Northwestern University wrote in Scientific American in 2002.
I’m on a low-FODMAP diet too. I just use pumpkin puree to replace apple sauce and it works in 98% recipes. Does make things a bit orange though ;). Other substitution ideas that I’ve used in other recipes are sweet potato puree (use white sweet potato so it’s not orange), yoghurt (I make mine with coconut milk), banana puree, or I’ve used water or milk + a little ground chia or linseed (a bit like a watery chia or flax egg). Hope you find something that works for you! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAZ5Z87Z55g
Like other fad diets, the Paleo diet is promoted as a way of improving health.[2] There is some evidence that following this diet may lead to improvements in terms of body composition and metabolic effects compared with the typical Western diet[6] or compared with diets recommended by national nutritional guidelines.[9] There is no good evidence, however, that the diet helps with weight loss, other than through the normal mechanisms of calorie restriction.[10] Following the Paleo diet can lead to an inadequate calcium intake, and side effects can include weakness, diarrhea, and headaches.[3][10]
I have made this several times and have always dbl’d the recipe as I have a large loaf pan. I have made a few modifications to it over the last couple of batches ~ I changed out the soda for baking powder! Seems to have created greater loft. I changed out the arrowroot powder for tapioca flour, which I like better ( although no difference in flavor, some in texture). I lowered the oven temp to 325 and increased the baking time to 55 min to insure the interior center was cooked. This last bake, I added about a cup of dried currants and it was fabulous. Just a hint of sweet ever so often is a wonderful addition.
[…] Review: I tried my best to modify my mom’s stuffing recipe with paleo bread, but some things are not meant to be.  Stuffing is one of those things that need the real thing in order to taste authentic.  It wasn’t terrible, but if you want that REAL stuffing taste, you won’t find it here. The bread recipe on it’s own was not bad at all, check it out here! […]

Just made this bread and I was excited to try it because I’ve missed bread something awful since I’ve been on Paleo for the last 2 months. I didn’t have flax meal so I substituted hemp seeds that I ground with a coffee grinder to make a meal. I also used organic agave instead of honey. I beat the eggs the egg mixture for a few minutes on med-high speed to get more air into the batter. I used a 8 1/2 x 4 1/2 glass pyrex loaf pan. The batter rose nicely and filled the pan. It tasted good and I’m happy to have some kind of bread that I can eat.
So what does the science say about the paleo diet? Some research suggests that the health claims hold truth. A review analyzed four randomized, controlled trials with 159 participants, and researchers found that the paleo diet led to more short-term improvements in some risk factors for chronic disease (including waist circumference and fasting blood sugar) compared with other control diets. (4)
Thank you Elana for posting such a delishious bread recipe. I followed the recipe as originally posted, but I didn’t feel there was enough batter, so I made another batch and added it to the first. The only change was I added aprox. 1 tsp. of cream of tartar. I used unpasturized dark honey, but next time I will only use 1 TBS. instead of the 2 for when I double the recipe. I think 1 TBS. will be plenty enough. I also baked the loaf a little longer until it was browned because of it’s thickness. Out of the grain free breads I have experimented with in baking, this one is definately the best. The taste and texture completed my ham and cucumber sandwich.
In William Calvin's The Ascent of Mind, Chapter 8 he discusses why he thinks that the Acheulian hand-ax (the oldest of the fancy stone tools of Homo erectus) was really a "killer frisbee." He argues that natural selection for throwing accuracy, which requires brain machinery, is the evolutionary scenario for bootstrapping higher intellectual functions. There are many more articles about evolution and human development throughout William's extensive site, though much of it these days is on climate change.
I made the recipe with ingredients exactly as written…no substitutions, however, based on other feedback, I cooked it an extra 10 min. It came out PERFECT (not dry). And, I did use Bob’s Red Mill almond flour. I rubbed butter on the sides of my (9x5x2.75) Bakers Secret loaf pan before putting the batter in it, and it came out compact, firm, clean, easy to slice in very thin slices, and toasts without falling apart. This definitely is the best tasting paleo/gf bread I’ve ever eaten. Mine, too, was only a couple of in. high, so I will make 1.5x the recipe, next time, to get a higher loaf. I’m thinking it will have to cook longer than the 35 min. I did for normal batch, though. QUESTION: has anyone tried any variation of this recipe using yeast? To the people who wanted to use their breadmakers, this would be the only reason to use a breadmaker (getting loaf to rise). I confess I tried this very thing the 2nd time I made the bread, but don’t have enough culinary/breadmaking skills to know why it didn’t rise more than the quick bread method (no sugar to activate the yeast more?). I substituted the baking soda for the pkt of yeast, and also added 2 tsp of xantham gum, thinking that would provide more cohesiveness for an expanding loaf, since this ingredient is often a suitable replacement for gluten in GF recipes. Maybe because I mixed all ingredients together before putting the batter in the machine’s bread pan & added yeast on top (yeast didn’t mix in too well) instead of letting the machine do the work by putting in first the wet, then dry ingredients on top of that, then finally yeast, per usual breadmaker directions. Any thoughts? Adriana, thank you so much for creating & sharing the recipe. ;o)
As paleo guru Robb Wolf puts it, think of a 100-yard football field. The first 99.5 yards are how long Homo-Sapiens spent as hunter-gatherers. As they became REALLY good at hunting and gathering our bodies adapted to that lifestyle over thousands of years. That last half-yard represents our species after the agricultural revolution, where our diet has shifted (but our genetics haven’t).
Coconut flour is a great alternative when you need to avoid almond flour because of a nut allergy, or for any other reason. With a couple easy tips, coconut flour can also yield delicious gluten free baked goods. Coconut flour is very high in fiber and subsequently absorbs a lot of liquid, so as a general rule, it’s recommended to use the coconut flour and liquid at the same ratio. Coconut flour can also result in very dense and/or dry and crumbly baked goods, so it’s important not to use too much coconut flour, and to use other ingredients to lighten the texture. This is why a lot of recipes that call for coconut flour also call for a lot of eggs. However, then the issue is that the baked goods have an overly eggy taste. Because of this, I prefer to use coconut flour in conjunction with other paleo-friendly flours instead of using it on its own.

I make three loaves of Paleo 2.0 bread and Paleo Rye bread every two weeks and they both freeze well. Thanks for these recipes. All of our children and grandchildren love them. We are moving from Illinois to Colorado Springs and are worried that the high altitude will create problems. Hoping that we will find by testing how to recreate these delicious breads.


I made this bread last night. AWESOME! I didn’t get the rise I was hoping for, but the taste is so good. It tastes like whole wheat bread, just not as tall. I used inulin instead of the whey protein, and still used the honey, too. Too much for the yeast to eat? For getting the bread to rise, I preheated the oven 175 degrees Farenheit, then turned it off. After the oven was warm, I placed the bread inside. I will try leaving it a little longer to see if I can get more rise. Also, I’ve seen several ask about the bread machine. I have read through the posts, but haven’t seen anyone confirm. I’m just gonna try it and will let you know how it turns out.
I would like to try this Paleo recipe as it really does look like a healthy one! We appreciate all your hard work “tweaking” these recipes to get them just right! However, I would like to comment that some of your recipe “supporters” live in Canada and we can’t get some of the brand named items you mention at times. Perhaps for this reason some have asked re substitutions. As an example, I made your Chocolate Prune Bars the other day but wasn’t sure about the NuNaturals Stevia. I didn’t know whether it was a powder or a liquid, and since we don’t have that brand here I took a “leap in the dark” and used SweetLeaf Vanilla Creme since there was vanilla in the recipe anyway. I’m sure yours turned out better than mine but I’m going to try again. Also, wasn’t sure whether the chocolate chips were semi-sweet or unsweetened, but just used what I had, which was bittersweet. I guess that item is pretty well a personal choice. Just thought I would let you know that we do have some different brand names in Canada which can sometimes confuse the issue. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtEubaJ30n0
Hi hi, not sure if this will help but you can use chia seeds in place of eggs. 1 tbsp to 4-5 tbsp of water. Whisk and let it sit in the fridge for 15 minutes. You may need to add more water if the mix is too thick, when I make it I aim for the consistency of raw egg, so goopy but a little runny. You can sub 1 tbsp of chia seeds for 1 egg in any recipe, Goodluck!!

I made dressing/stuffing out of this bread! I cut the bread into slices, then cut the slices into cubes. I put them on a metal pan and into my toaster oven on low temperature and let them crisp up. It takes a good while, but they DO get crisp! Then I have my croutons for the dressing. The dressing I made was delicious. I think the next time I make the bread to use for croutons I’m going to add onion powder and sage to the mixture before baking so the croutons will be seasoned some before I begin making the dressing! Love this bread! It is the most like wheat flour bread that I have tried! Thanks Maya!
Hi Ginger, I personally haven’t tried making this bread into buns. I think the texture is a bit different, but it may work also. You could bake the batter into an english muffin pan like this one http://amzn.to/1TbU31n or this one http://amzn.to/23RkXeu. Please let me know how it goes if you try it and post a photo here so I can see how they turn out.

The yeast in this low carb and keto bread ensures a wonderful texture and taste. Now, how much your bread will rise (and fall!) post-bake depends quite a bit on your altitude. But note that you still won’t get that gummy and wet texture here of most low carb breads. Plus, as mentioned, we’re baking at over 7,000 feet (Mexico City here!!), so if we can make this keto sandwich bread work so can you.
Flatbread is a nice change of pace to ordinary loaves, and it goes really well with all sorts of meals, and you can even make a meal out of it by using it to make a sandwich. This cheesey version is made using tapioca flour, so it will have a different texture and flavor than breads made with almond flour or coconut flour. The cheese they’re using is the kind that is usually given a nod on Paleo, unless you are being very strict. Hard cheeses like asiago and parmesan are usually given a pass because they don’t include as much dairy. It’s up to you to determine what your body can handle.
Hi hi, not sure if this will help but you can use chia seeds in place of eggs. 1 tbsp to 4-5 tbsp of water. Whisk and let it sit in the fridge for 15 minutes. You may need to add more water if the mix is too thick, when I make it I aim for the consistency of raw egg, so goopy but a little runny. You can sub 1 tbsp of chia seeds for 1 egg in any recipe, Goodluck!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmLd7AJpRsk

Paleo baked goods are free of gluten, refined sugars, and dairy. If you’ve perfected regular baking and now you’ve gone paleo, you might be surprised at just how different this way of baking is. I find that in order to get the closest simulation of regular bread (i.e., bread that has gluten), it’s often useful to use a combination of a few different paleo-friendly flours.


umm, hard to say what may have caused this to happen. A few things I can think of are the temperature in your oven, the other ingredients you used, and the way you measured them. It’s so hard to say. I’ve made this bread with Welbee’s so it’s not that. Are you using measuring spoons and cups? I think you should try again. If you can purchase an oven thermometer to make sure the temperature is where you want it during baking I would do that. Every oven is so different… Here’s one for $6.51 on Amazon http://amzn.to/1WcJ1tv. Also, when you use test your bread with the stick, be sure to insert it all the way in, and in a couple different places. Please let me know how it goes when you make it again. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrlFu0Lsqbc
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