While going bonkers and eating chocolate creations 3 times per day is unnecessary (and would sorta defeat the point of Whole30, and Paleo in general) I DO think it’s a great time to explore all the Paleo dessert options out there – so we can have our cake (quite literally) – and still feel awesome after eating it. That’s what Paleo treats and desserts are all about in my opinion – and it’s NO secret that I’m quite the fan of dessert, just check out the “sweet treats” section of the blog!
In order to simulate a bread-like texture without using gluten, grain free and gluten free bread recipes often use a variety of different flours and binders. We’ve tried so many keto bread recipes that taste way too eggy or too much like almonds or coconut. The trick is to find a combination of ingredients that yields good flavor, as well as bready texture and a loaf that rises nicely.
This was fantastic!! I didn’t have coconut flour, flax meal or apple cider vinegar. I made due with regular white distilled vinegar, coconut cream powder (happened to buy some at the Filipino store last night.) I did add about a 1/4 cup of Truvia baking sugar, maybe it wasn’t even a 1/4 cup; I didn’t measure. It came out so good. Moist and springy like a sponge cake. Now I can have my bread!! Thank you so much! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uCx5ZM7fPEE
The Primal Blueprint Cookbook: Primal, Low Carb, Paleo, Grain-Free, Dairy-Free and Gluten-Free by Mark Sisson and Jennifer Meier. Recipes include: Roasted Leg of Lamb with Herbs and Garlic, Salmon Chowder with Coconut Milk, Tomatoes Stuffed with Ground Bison and Eggs, and Baked Chocolate Custard. Recipes are simple and have limited ingredients. Complaints are the book is stuffed with unnecessary photos and proofreading could have been better, e.g. oven temperatures were left out. And recipes are not truly paleo. Despite what is on the cover dairy is used in some recipes. The Amazon reviews average to 4+ stars. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oRuK62LZgj8
I am trying this recipe for the very first time. It’s in the oven as I type! I am only 30 hours into a Paleo diet shift, and I am so happy to find a paleo bread recipe. I like eating extra virgin olive oil with bread to get more healthy fat into my diet, and this recipe will allow me to do just that. I am pursuing a paleo – possibly keto – diet for health reasons that also include a diagnosis of MS.
Hi Sally, thanks for your comment and kind words. I mostly bake with almond flour and coconut flour because they are much lower carb than other gluten-free flours. Unfortunately, I don’t think they are elastic enough to make pita bread. When we have falafel and other foods that are typically served with some type of bread product, I serve in a lettuce wrap which takes next to no time to prepare, is low carb, and very healthy. Sorry I can’t be of more help! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dhW4Cg7Yfuw
Cordain explains that high intake of fruits and vegetables is one of best ways to reduce chances of cancer and heart disease. He notes that protein has twice the calorie burning effect of fat and carbs and is more satiating than both. He explains that starch, fats, sugars, and salts together cause us to keep eating. So if we limit our diet to fruits and vegetables and/or meat, we’ll stop eating when we’re full. And if you stop eating when you’re full, you’ll lose weight and won’t get fat. And as you lose weight, your cholesterol will improve (regardless of what you eat). This all makes sense and can’t really be disputed. If you want to lose weight, the Paleo diet will get you there and probably quickly. But Cordain’s hypothesis applied to long-term health falls short. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5J56pHrhyEg
I am new to walking the Primal path, but was already missing bread and sandwiches. Thanks so much for this recipe. I made it today and it came out great. After reading all the reviews about the center not baking, I inserted my oven thermometer into the center of the loaf after 25 minutes of baking. Then I set the thermometer to alarm when it reached 195 degrees F. (That is halfway between the 190 degrees I use for white bread and 200 degrees I use for banana bread.) The center was nicely baked. Hopefully this will help others who try this recipe.
re almond flour & coconut oil, any health food store staff would be super helpful in pointing you to the right ones, especially when you tell them you’ll baking. he showed me unbleached almond flour and coconut flour (Bob’s Red Mill is all over NYC, at least, and you can get it online http://www.amazon.com/Bobs-Red-Mill-Organic-16-Ounce/dp/B000KENKZ8/ref=sr_1_4?s=grocery&ie=UTF8&qid=1383057846&sr=1-4&keywords=bob%27s+red+mill+coconut their products are consistently great, IMHO)
I didn’t have almond flour so substituted 1 cup millet flour and 1 cup sorghum flour for the almond flour, and baked in an 7.5″ x 4.5″ x 2.5″ loaf pan. The loaf was short, about 1.5″ tall, the texture was pleasantly dense and held together well. The taste, however, was pasty (like flour) and the bread was dry. (I noticed afterwards that the sorghum flour package said to substitute 15-20% sorghum flour in your recipe, so that may have affected the taste and dryness.) I tried a slice with a topping of honey, and that was pretty good, but not good enough. So I made croutons, which were delicious. I cut the bread into small cubes and spread them on a cookie sheet, sprayed them with olive oil spray and drizzled 1/2 stick of butter over them, then seasoned generously with Nature’s Seasonings and garlic powder (for a richer crouton, could also sprinkle with parmesan cheese). I tossed them to distribute the seasonings and baked them at 350 degrees about 20 minutes until crunchy. I’ll try the recipe again when I have almond flour.
Sounds like your baking soda is old and/or spoiled. It explains the lack of rise, tingling tongue, chemical taste (washing soda [sodium carbonate, I think] is made by heating baking soda [sodium bicarbonate] in big ovens), and maybe the extra salty flavor, too. I’ve had bad baking soda spoil baked goods, and it’s a real bummer. Hope you try again, though. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_JUritU2IE
Oh me… oh my. Back then, I would have pulled out the food processor, opened up my bulk bag of almonds and blended for a good 5-15 minutes ’til I got just the perfect smooth consistency of creamy almond butter. Then, carefully transfer that mess-prone goop (scientific name for nut butter consistency) into a large Tupperware, spend like 15 good minutes wiping off flecks of almond butter goop that had flown all over the kitchen, then wash all the dishes (you know how long this takes when you have almond butter grease staunchly refusing to let go of its dish territory), then dry all the dishes (because: counter space, ‘nuff said), then make these bars.
I made its latest version today and absolutely I love it. I like that it does not taste like almond or coconut it tastes like a bread. A verg good bread that it’s not harmful at least with recent knowledge of us because before it I thought whole meal bread is really good for us and I was very proud to my healthy breakfast oats, raw honey and seeds but then they figured out that oats are not harmless I am wondering what is the next thing that will be deleted from my diet:(( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CKV90Cs311I
Tried making these with sunflower seed butter in a bun pan! They do come out a bit green, but I like them better than the almond butter variety. I’m using sugar free/salt free sunflower seed butter (not SunButter) and it seems to be the most filling stuff on the planet. I can’t eat more than a teaspoon of it (unlike almond butter, which I must be very careful around!), and it makes these little bread rounds very filling, too! I pour 1/4 cup of batter into each well of a standard bun pan and I get 10 or 12 little bread rounds. They’re not as tall as muffin tops, and much shorter than a yeast roll. I pop them in the toaster and spread them with butter and homemade Paleo jam. Great for breakfast!
This is the best gluten free bread recipe I’ve tried! So glad I found this. It’s not crumbly, very bread-like, just a bit dense. I loosely followed the recipe and changed a few things. I omitted the maple syrup to make it whole30. I didn’t have arrowroot so I subbed tapioca starch per some of the comments and added some chia seeds as well. Since there was so much coconut oil in it, I plan on experimenting and using olive oil so it doesn’t have too much of a coconut taste. My husband didn’t really notice it though. He is the gluten free one and he’s very picky about his bread, but this got his approval! I added some almonds on top and garlic and Italian herb seasoning to give it a flavor boost. I had trouble with this in the blender, maybe because I don’t have a very good one, so I will just use a mixing bowl next time. Thank you for sharing! I will be telling my friends about this!
Kim, thanks for your comment. I’ve baked this bread at both sea level and 8,000 feet and haven’t found any need for adjustments. The issue is likely the size pan that you baked the bread in. If you use the recommended size baking pan, the bread will be the proper height. If you use a pan that is bigger than the one I used, your bread will rise, but it won’t fill the pan to the right height. Here’s an example that might help –if you place 1/2 cup of water in a 1/2 measuring cup it will be 100% full to the top of the cup. If you put the same 1/2 cup of water in a 1 cup measuring cup it will only fill it 50% and will only be 1/2 full in height. That’s why a loaf pan that is too large doesn’t work for this recipe when it comes to the bread “rising” and the height of the loaf :-)
I made dressing/stuffing out of this bread! I cut the bread into slices, then cut the slices into cubes. I put them on a metal pan and into my toaster oven on low temperature and let them crisp up. It takes a good while, but they DO get crisp! Then I have my croutons for the dressing. The dressing I made was delicious. I think the next time I make the bread to use for croutons I’m going to add onion powder and sage to the mixture before baking so the croutons will be seasoned some before I begin making the dressing! Love this bread! It is the most like wheat flour bread that I have tried! Thanks Maya!
Once they’re good to go, the process of making these paleo breads couldn’t be easier. It goes like this. Throw a bunch of ingredients in a food processor, and hit the “on” button to mix up the batter. Then, transfer it to a pan and bake it. The biggest challenge I have making these is to get the oven to heat as quickly as I can get the bread batter ready for it.
It turned out great! Such an amazing crust crunch and it has that spongy texture that all the other paleo breads don’t. It’s soft, light and spread on with Kerrygold salted butter!!! It’s got the slightest hint of sweet. Can’t wait to make my paleo strawberry jam for this! Also excited about applegate lunch meat with this bread for sandwiches! This will be a staple for us (im allergic to preservatives).
I feel like I need to personally thank you for this recipe. I’ve had celiac disease for 7 years and have never been able to find (or make) a bread substitute that reminds me of the oh so glutenfull bread I used to enjoy, namely sandwich bread. I literally make these 1 if not 2 times a week! They make incredible sandwiches, open face “pizza crusts” and so much more. This bread is the real deal and I can’t thank you enough!!!
We’re loving the taste and texture of this–but like a few others, I came out with a dense. flat loaf (only about 1 1/2″ high). The liquid mixture seemed very thick, and the combined batter was almost a dough going into the pan, not exactly pourable. I know some almond flours behave differently; I used Bob’s Red Mill (only thing readily available here), if that makes a difference.
Hi Jen, It sounds like it needed to bake for longer – this is why it sunk and was still moist. The timing varies by ovens and even different pans. I hope you’ll try it again and just keep it in there for longer. You can cover the top if it starts to brown too much. For the one you made, depending on how moist it was in the middle, you may be able to salvage it somewhat by pan frying the slices.
This rose really nicely and is pretty light and fluffy. It doesn’t have the exact same texture as wheat bread, but we thought it was close enough. My husband and I enjoyed some turkey sandwiches today, and our 3 year old loved her “PB&J” with sunflower butter. I packed everyone’s lunch in the morning, and they were still good at noon (kept in a cooler).
Shandeline, if you use a larger size pan than I indicate for the recipe, your batter won’t fill it up and your loaf will be flat. An example is if you fill a 1/2 cup with 1/2 cup of water, the water comes to the top of the cup, if you transfer that 1/2 cup of water to a 1 cup measuring cup, it will only fill it halfway. That’s what’s happening to the bread when the pan used it too large. I’m so glad that the bread tasted wonderful!
One question, when I released this bread out of the pan there was a very strong ammonia smell coming from the bread. After it cooled this ammonia smell was gone. I’m just curious what could cause that odor? Is it a reaction from the almond flour? I was just caught off guard when I bent over to get a whiff of the freshly baked loaf and it smelled of ammonia! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OxF2u_3URxs
These are the best rolls I have ever had I have been gluten-free and Paleo for at least eight years and this is by far the best thank you so much for the recipe will make all the time have tried many many recipes just didn’t like him this is absolutely perfect. Also made them in a muffin tin pan just perfect for sandwiches or hamburgers or sloppy Joe’s.
This has been happening to me too! I make it exactly how the recipe is written. I tried baking it longer and its still hollow in the middle and mushy. It used to come out perfect for me but the last 4 times it has been this way. I just recently moved and made the first loaf in the new oven and same thing!! So frustrating. Maybe cover it with foil and cook it even longer than 35 min? What rack should it be on? Please help!! I can’t live without my paleo bread!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_AxOnEg6hXs
A number of randomized clinical trials have compared the paleo diet to other eating plans, such as the Mediterranean Diet or the Diabetes Diet. Overall, these trials suggest that a paleo diet may provide some benefits when compared with diets of fruits, vegetables, lean meats, whole grains, legumes and low-fat dairy products. These benefits may include:
But human populations in different regions of the world ate a variety of diets. Some ate more; some ate less. They likely ate meat only when they could get it, and then they gorged. Richard Wrangham, author of Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, says diets from around the world ranged greatly in the percentage of calories from meat. It’s not cooked meat that made us human, he says, but rather cooked food.
One larger randomized controlled trial followed 70 post-menopausal Swedish women with obesity for two years, who were placed on either a Paleo diet or a Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) diet.  The Paleo diet provided 30% of total calories from protein, 40% fat (from mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats) and 30% carbohydrates. It included lean meats, fish, eggs, vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, avocado, and olive oil. The NNR diet provided less protein and fat but more carbohydrate with 15% protein, 25-30% fat, and 55-60% carbohydrates, including foods similar to the Paleo diet but also low-fat dairy products and high-fiber grains. Both groups significantly decreased fat mass and weight circumference at 6 and 24 months, with the Paleo diet producing greater fat loss at 6 months but not at 24 months. Triglyceride levels decreased more significantly with the Paleo diet at 6 and 24 months than the NNR diet.
One flour you’ll definitely want to familiarize yourself with on Paleo is almond flour. It comes in handy in dozens of different baking applications and it provides a pretty darn good substitute to general purpose flour. This almond loaf was made using almond flour and a few select additional ingredients like coconut oil and apple cider vinegar. This recipe is good for showing you how easy it is to come up with a loaf of Paleo bread. It isn’t exactly rocket science so don’t be afraid to try it out if you’ve never made bread from scratch before.
Tonight, I tried using this differently…I coated all natural hot dogs with it and made “corn dogs”. I was able to cover 7 easily with a full recipe, minus 1 egg so it would be stiffer dough, and laid them on a Silpat covered cookie sheet. I started at 400 degrees to make sure they browned, but I ended up turning it down to 350 for about 25 minutes. They were great. Thanks again for the recipe and hard work.
I’ve been working on this Paleo Bread recipe for several months and have tested it a couple of dozen times. In fact, every time I create a recipe I test each and every ingredient addition or subtraction. That’s why I think it’s kinda funny when people leave comments below recipes (or on Instagram) asking how such and such ingredient substitution will turn out.
I just stumbled upon your website today..perfect timing! I have been struggling with my first month of switching to the Paleo lifestyle. I love to cook, love to eat, and hate being restricted. Even though I very rarely crave pasta, grains, or dairy I was going a bit nutty because I’m now “not allowed” to have them. Your website has been a blessing. Already today I have made the silver dollar pancakes for breakfast, the Paleo bread for the rest of the week and have so many other recipes I can’t wait to try!
Both the keto diet and the paleo diet are all the rage right now, with many people choosing one or the other in an effort to change their eating habits, get healthier, and be better able to enjoy their lives. For many people, however, it can be difficult or even confusing to understand the differences between the two and how to manipulate their eating habits in order to achieve their goals. If you're thinking about a drastic lifestyle change,...
Hi Melissa, Are you beating the whole eggs? It needs to be egg whites only. Whole eggs will never form peaks. Adding a little cream of tartar helps, as well as making sure you start with a very clean bowl (preferably not plastic if you’re having issues). Having the egg whites at room temperature can be a little easier, too, though I usually don’t need to. Hope this answers your question!
The information on this website has not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration or any other medical body. We do not aim to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any illness or disease. Information is shared for educational purposes only. You must consult your doctor before acting on any content on this website, especially if you are pregnant, nursing, taking medication or have a medical condition.
What a fantastic recipe! I just made this and my house smells like sweet, toasty almonds. The texture is light and fluffy. Can’t wait to toast it gently in my oven in the morning with a little peach jam :) I used a glass pyrex loaf pan and lined it with parchment paper and lightly oiled it with coconut oil and it came out perfect,for anyone wondering about the specific pan you mentioned, which i haven’t heard of either. Thanks for this great recipe!
Nutrition & Physical Degeneration by Dr. Weston Price's book puts to rest a lot of myths about diet, dental, physical, and emotional health, and presents the strongest case for a super-nutritious Native (or Paleo) Diet. His book outlines the conditions/causes for exceptional health. A classic that was first published in 1938. The Soil and Health Library has a Book Review by Steve Solomon. If you don't buy the book at least read the review. N.B. If you live in one of the countries where this book is now in the public domain, you can read it online. But not if you live in a country where it is still under copyright protection.
I was wondering if anyone has any advice for me. I have a nonverbal two-year-old son. We are trying to move him off of grains completely, but the only thing I can get him to eat is an almond butter and honey sandwich. Just about every type of grain free bread I’ve tried he has discarded. I’m worried that he is so addicted to bread that it is limiting his world, not only are there different types of foods that he’s missing out on, but also his consumption of gluten may be affecting his development.
these were amazing. I was skeptical at first because of other failed experiments. I decided to try these one more time and it worked. High in ww points at 6 but worth it. I didn’t have a mould but use 1/2 cup measure and made 4 “pancakes” each about 5 ” round and baked for 10 minutes. Used coconut oil instead of palm oil, the only change I made. Worth the effort and will make this routine. Thanks
I completely omitted the palm shortening and didn’t replace it with anything – I can’t tell that anything’s missing. I also doubled the recipe and put it all in one loaf pan like some others did and baked it for 30 minutes. Even the hubs, who is truly a bread addict, really likes this recipe! I think they’re kind of English Muffiny and I toast the slices for sandwiches. Gluten gives me eczema and I never thought I’d get a good sandwich bread again. Thank you! 🙂
This was my first attempt at GF baking…and it turned out okay as in it’s not burnt and definately edible. I think I had glass pan issues…and I didn’t realize you had to melt the coconut oil since the recipe didn’t specify in liquid form vs soft solid…but my main comments is that it’s just too eggy. Like French toast eggy. Definately not what I’m looking for as a GF bread option to eat in the morning WITH EGGS. On to the next recipe.
Hey Deena, I also live in Kansas City and I’ve made this bread 2 times, also making it right now. The first time it came out perfect. The second time it didn’t rise as mush as the first but the bread was still better then any other. I always make sure the house is (hot) and everything is done by the stove 😉 I make it when no one is home but me… You can do it!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=baEZwX4imOc
The first time that I tried to make a Paleo version of sandwich bread, I used sunflower seed butter. I used to really like the combination of honey and sunflower seeds in a loaf of bread, and since I had the sunflower seed butter on hand I used it instead of almond butter. I was very excited, the loaf turned out looking great…but then I set it out to cool. The loaf of bread slowly turned a vivid shade of green. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcTWSdjFz9Y
Hi John, You could possible try a hand mixer in a bowl instead of the food processor, but I haven’t tried it, so can’t vouch for the results. Most likely the bread would not be as tall because the mixer would completely deflate the first half of the egg whites when you add them to the batter. The second half should be folded so that part will be find. If you try with a bowl and hand mixer, let me know how that goes.
thank you for prompt reply. I do hope it tastes better than other low carb bread I’ve made and thrown out because I dislike the taste and sometimes it was too wet. It looks great so will try and report back. I must find something I like as at the moment am tucking into “normal” bread and that’s not good for my wastline or my diabetes. Thanks for the inspiring recipes. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKHpXiHj_KU
In William Calvin's The Ascent of Mind, Chapter 8 he discusses why he thinks that the Acheulian hand-ax (the oldest of the fancy stone tools of Homo erectus) was really a "killer frisbee." He argues that natural selection for throwing accuracy, which requires brain machinery, is the evolutionary scenario for bootstrapping higher intellectual functions. There are many more articles about evolution and human development throughout William's extensive site, though much of it these days is on climate change.
As paleo guru Robb Wolf puts it, think of a 100-yard football field. The first 99.5 yards are how long Homo-Sapiens spent as hunter-gatherers. As they became REALLY good at hunting and gathering our bodies adapted to that lifestyle over thousands of years. That last half-yard represents our species after the agricultural revolution, where our diet has shifted (but our genetics haven’t).
I have a question for you about eggs. Do you have any particular size or volume of “egg” that you tend to use in your recipes? In most of my cookbooks, an “egg” means a medium sized egg that yields about 50mls by volume, so there are slightly more than 5 eggs in a cup. I tend to buy extra large eggs locally, and I find that when a recipe calls for more than 3 eggs, the end result is quite “egg-y.” I’m going to experiment, but perhaps you would be able to tell me if there is a size or volume of egg that you tend to use in your recipes. (I didn’t see anything specific under the “ingredient” menu on your blog.)
As for the preface to it, could you be more snarky? People are curious and not every place in the world has Celtic sea salt or coconut flour easily accessible. Given that you try every minute substitution, it makes me wonder if you tried Celtic sea salt vs. Gaelic sea salt. Geez, woman, lighten up and realize that people are just tapping into your wisdom. Who knows? Maybe you tried the substitution they were asking about and you can tell them how it worked out.
Hello Elana: I have been a Paleo girl for about 8 months and am thoroughly enjoying the hunting and gathering! Today I was cooking turkey and wanted to adapt my stuffing recipe and found your Paleo bread recipe. Thanks so much. It works well with my other ingredients, mushrooms, onion, parsnips, celery, jalapeño and sausages, spicey pepper and summer savory and of course coconut oil. Can’t wait till dinner time.
Mine had a distinct ammonia scent, which I noticed from the comments was an issue for a few other posters as well. My research tells me not enough acid in my batch to neutralize the soda. I may have left it a bit too long in my processor because my coconut oil was lumpy and I was trying to break it up. It tastes a bit like Irish soda bread, which is not my favorite. I’m thinking of experimenting with baking powder instead to suit my personal preference.
This might just be the sweetest news you receive all day: Desserts don't need to go extinct if you're following a paleo diet. Sure, the caveman-inspired meal plan eschews sugar, but these 10 inventive bloggers found creative (and delicious!) ways to make your cravings go the way of the dinosaurs. Preheat your ovens now and prepare to enjoy some tasty paleo desserts.
Some randomized controlled trials have shown the Paleo diet to produce greater short-term benefits than diets based on national nutrition guidelines, including greater weight loss, reduced waist circumference, decreased blood pressure, increased insulin sensitivity, and improved cholesterol. However these studies were of short duration (6 months or less) with a small number of participants (less than 40). [4-6] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N80LZL2vw3A
Speaking from experience, you won’t be able to taste even the slightest coconut flavor in the bread, especially with just a small amount! Coconut flour has very unique properties compared to other flours (much more absorbent) and can’t be easily substituted. With how many tries it can take to get paleo baked goods to to have the right taste/texture, I recommend following Michelle’s recipe as written! 🙂
The paleo diet is meant to mimic what our preagricultural, hunter-gatherer ancestors ate. The premise is that the current Western diet is contributing to the rise of chronic diseases such as obesity, heart disease and cancer. This diet, paleo proponents claim, can reduce inflammation, improve workouts, increase energy, help with weight loss, stabilize blood sugar and even reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
I didn’t have almond flour so substituted 1 cup millet flour and 1 cup sorghum flour for the almond flour, and baked in an 7.5″ x 4.5″ x 2.5″ loaf pan. The loaf was short, about 1.5″ tall, the texture was pleasantly dense and held together well. The taste, however, was pasty (like flour) and the bread was dry. (I noticed afterwards that the sorghum flour package said to substitute 15-20% sorghum flour in your recipe, so that may have affected the taste and dryness.) I tried a slice with a topping of honey, and that was pretty good, but not good enough. So I made croutons, which were delicious. I cut the bread into small cubes and spread them on a cookie sheet, sprayed them with olive oil spray and drizzled 1/2 stick of butter over them, then seasoned generously with Nature’s Seasonings and garlic powder (for a richer crouton, could also sprinkle with parmesan cheese). I tossed them to distribute the seasonings and baked them at 350 degrees about 20 minutes until crunchy. I’ll try the recipe again when I have almond flour. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jQDpobq7jYY&t=91s