Eat generous amounts of saturated fats like coconut oil and butter or clarified butter. Beef tallow, lard and duck fat are also good, but only if they come from healthy and well-treated animals. Beef or lamb tallow is a better choice than lamb or duck fat. Olive, avocado and macadamia oil are also good fats to use in salads and to drizzle over food, but not for cooking. For more information, have a look at our beginner’s guide to Paleo and fat. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b3tXE5vqisA
I wrote a book called The Paleo Solution which went on to become a New York Times Bestseller. This book incorporates the latest, cutting edge research from genetics, biochemistry and anthropology to help you look, feel and perform your best. I am a research biochemist who traded in his lab coat and pocket protector for a whistle and a stopwatch to become one of the most sought after strength and conditioning coaches in the world. With my unique perspective as both scientist and coach you will learn how simple nutrition, exercise and lifestyle changes can radically change your appearance and health for the better.
But human populations in different regions of the world ate a variety of diets. Some ate more; some ate less. They likely ate meat only when they could get it, and then they gorged. Richard Wrangham, author of Catching Fire: How Cooking Made Us Human, says diets from around the world ranged greatly in the percentage of calories from meat. It’s not cooked meat that made us human, he says, but rather cooked food.
I’ve been thinking about bringing paleo-friendly bread and rolls to LCK for some time now. But I knew before I did that I needed to make sure they fit specific criteria. They need the right flavor and fluffy, soft, air-y, bread-like texture. You see, I’ve never bothered buying gluten-free breads in the store. I never thought it was worth it because I always felt they were dense, not the right flavor, etc.
Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective by Staffan Lindeberg (MD at Lund University in Sweden) is the newest book promoting the paleo diet. It covers the link between diet and disease in the Western world (all major diseases, including cancer, heart disease, obesity, stroke and dementia) and towards a greater knowledge of what can be defined as the optimal human diet. Benefits and risks are detailed. The Amazon reviews are all 5 stars. Especially read Susan Schenck's detailed review. You can read a preview at Google Books https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMOjVYgYaG8
I am studying nutrition and, like you, understand that many foods labeled as paleo weren’t actually consumed by our paleolithic ancestors thousands of years ago. I guarantee elana knows that as well. Labeling a recipe paleo is an easy way to categorize posts so those eating a paleo, or grain and dairy free whole foods diet, know it’s for them. Hope that clears up some of your frustration and or misunderstanding about paleo recipes. enjoy!

Hi Tanya, thanks for your comment and sorry to hear you are having trouble finding the loaf pan. If you bake this bread in a 9×5 inch loaf pan it will be very flat, as this recipe only makes enough batter to fill the pan halfway. I haven’t tested this in other pans, so I’m not sure what would work. If you experiment with mini loaf pans please let us know how it goes, that might work and I’m curious to hear about it!
WOW! This bread is amazing! I have Gestational Diabetes, and have been struggling with bread since it has been spiking my sugars. Normally I don’t each much of it, but I was just craving it today. So I made a loaf and it is delicious! I went through the comments because I only have a full size loaf pan, and did as someone else mentioned, increased the recipe by .5 (for the eggs did 8 eggs rather than 7), and it came out the perfect size and absolutely delicious. Looking forward to enjoying it the rest of the week. I used a glass full size loaf and cooked for 40 minutes at 350 degrees. I topped it with extra flax seeds because I too love the nutty flavor of flax.
I just made the bread above and sadly for me LOLOl it was only 2′ high I am wondering if that is because i mixed it in my Mixmaster not a food processor it tastes yummy but I’m not sure why it didn’t rise higher. the batter was very thick when I put it in the loaf tin Oh well I wil have to try it again LOLOl we will eat it fast as it tastes soooo good https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_pUwYbFgpY
I know that soy can cause inflammation and if you are not using soy free eggs, that could be part of the cause. It may not be the actual egg but the soy that is the problem. just a thought. Here is an article that has some interesting info on soy. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/07/29/soy-effects-on-women.aspx?e_cid=20120729_SNL_Art_1
In low carb and keto baking, we’re concerned with two things: 1) keeping carbs low, and 2) still achieving a baked good that has great flavor and texture (because if we can’t gag it down there’s just no point, right? Lol). Low carb bread recipes are usually gluten free and grain free (although we’ve seen a couple that use oat fiber), but then the challenge is to get creative to get the right combination of ingredients to yield something that rises properly and tastes good.
Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples (Expanded Edition) by Don R. Brothwell and Patricia Brothwell is a survey of what is known archaeologically about food and drink in pre-modern times. The chapter on insects includes their food value. In beverages it covers what happens to a neglected jar of fruit juice. Under cannibalism it shows evidence of this being done in paleo times, thought most of the work focuses on the classical and near-eastern civilizations, but occasional mention is made of the mesoamerican cultures as well. There is taxonomic and anatomical information.
Elana – I would love it if you would share more of your cooking notes with your readers. I think it would really help those of us who need or want to experiment with ingredients and/or quantities. For instance, I made this bread and find it too “eggy” so I might try it again with one fewer egg. If I knew more about your process it could help mine. Thanks for all of your hard work! I get frustrated with one bad cooking experiment — you do it for a living!
Hi, I’ve made this recipe twice and LOVE the taste. However, both times the bread would rise so high in the oven, but as soon as I take it out to cool it deflated and middle sink down. What could’ve gone wrong? Over mixing? I did switch coconut flour to all almond flour instead. Could that be a problem? Please help as I’m anxious to make another batch. Thank you.
[…] I don't like the word "diet", so I'll say that this is more a way of changing what you eat long-term. It's all based around what our ancestor hunter-gatherers would have eaten, and what we've evolved to be able to process and absorb. The very basic level of it, is that you don't eat carbohydrates, processed meats or sugars, and cut out dairy products. You instead eat plenty of fresh meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and nuts. You can still have oil, provided it's natural – so coconut, peanut & olive oil are all good. The good thing is that you're also allowed to take this to your own level – so if you want a couple of days off a week – say, weekends, you can do it & it will still be a lot healthier for you. This is a really helpful site I've used to make a note on my shopping list of what's allowed: The Ultimate Paleo Diet Food List | Ultimate Paleo Guide […]

Kim, thanks for your comment. I’ve baked this bread at both sea level and 8,000 feet and haven’t found any need for adjustments. The issue is likely the size pan that you baked the bread in. If you use the recommended size baking pan, the bread will be the proper height. If you use a pan that is bigger than the one I used, your bread will rise, but it won’t fill the pan to the right height. Here’s an example that might help –if you place 1/2 cup of water in a 1/2 measuring cup it will be 100% full to the top of the cup. If you put the same 1/2 cup of water in a 1 cup measuring cup it will only fill it 50% and will only be 1/2 full in height. That’s why a loaf pan that is too large doesn’t work for this recipe when it comes to the bread “rising” and the height of the loaf :-) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QTU353BN-wM

Jump up ^ Hall H (2014). "Food myths: what science knows (and does not know) about diet and nutrition". Skeptic. 19 (4). p. 10. Fad diets and "miracle" diet supplements promise to help us lose weight effortlessly. Different diet gurus offer a bewildering array of diets that promise to keep us healthy and make us live longer: vegan, Paleo, Mediterranean, low fat, low carb, raw food, gluten-free ... the list goes on. (subscription required)


It is interesting in gluten free baking how seemingly minute changes can have a big effect on the taste, texture, consistency and rise of the finished product. I thought it was just me that had such an enhanced palate (since I have Fibromyalgia, CFS, etc) my senses and nerves are forever enhanced. In my vanilla oat banana quick bread recipe I have found that variations in the type of pan etc will change the entire finished product. I have tried it in a large loaf pan, mini loaves and muffins. This recipe which I created works best as mini loaves. Just last week I made it and I used my nutri bullet instead of my food processor to ground the oat, corn meal and corn starch flour blend I created and it made for a very fine powder. This change in the texture of of the flour gave the bread a different texture. It was a slight change that only I would have noticed but I was going crazy trying to pinpoint what made the difference. I pinpointed that in order to get the rise and texture I prefer, I need to use mini loaf pans and pulse my blend in the food processor. I feel like these variations are part of all baking but pronounced in gf baking for sure. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gxU39NIEUEQ
I wish we didn’t have to test every adjustment to a recipe to figure out if it works. It would save us all so much time and money! If I only had a crystal ball that would give me the answer to all of your substitution questions, I would be so happy. Unfortunately, I don’t. So be adventurous. If you have an idea, test it. Then come back here and let us all know if it works.
Wowwwww!!! This is amazing. I had to change the recipe a bit (I followed the top recipe) because of lack of ingredients. I used Raw Almond Flour (not blanched); I used only three eggs + one chia egg + one flax egg; and my pan was about 8.5*4, so a bit bigger than recommended; I did not use the food processor, just mixed everything with a whisk and a spoon. Even though the pan was larger the height was great, and I’ve never had such a moist bread. Incredible! It is so delicious and wonderful. And so easy to make!! Thank you so much- I haven’t eaten anything like this since quitting gluten. This will be my go-to bread from now on.
I have a problem, Im hoping someone here can help me with! I have a wheat allergy, very lactose intolerant, allergic to chick peas, and also sensitive to most other grains (rice flour is one the safe ones). I really thought the paleo diet would be able to help me, but Ive bought a cookbook, and look on various sites and most of the recipes call for coconut flour, coconut oil, coconut aminos, coconut crystals, or coconut milk; and I have a bad intolerance to coconut! Its not an allergy, but it will make me very uncomfortable for at least a cpl hours! I saw one question that was brought up, that said that almond flour and coconut flour are used for different reasons and connot be interchanged, so is there anything out there that can be used in replace of coconut oil, coconut flour, coconut aminos, and coconut crystals that will still make the recipes come out good?
Alyssa, one more thing. Both the bowl and the beaters need to be spotlessly clean. If there is one hint of oil anywhere the whites will not beat properly. Nicole is correct about not using a plastic bowl. Plastic will even absorb oil to say nothing of the microscopic amounts that get into the surface when it’s scratched. When baking it is always best to use a metal or glass bowl for all of your mixing.
I am BLOWN away by this bread! I added up the protein and net carbs … umm … WOW. A huge bonus is that both kids – one of whom is crazy picky – AND my husband both love it!!!! They devoured the first loaf within a few hours. This will obviously be a huge staple in our house. It’s really a God-send. Our son, who is the picky eater, is mostly picky about proteins. He won’t eat any meat except for chicken, no eggs or dairy. We’ve gone gluten/casein free to see if it helps with his autism and as much as I totally wanted to eliminate bread, I finally just had to accept that he HAD to eat a peanut butter and honey sandwich at lunch. My cracker/veggie/peanut butter dip thing just wasn’t working. Not only will he EAT this bread – he wouldn’t eat the other gluten-free breads I was making – it is actually giving him the ONE thing he needs most – PROTEIN. Seriously, thank you, thank you, thank you!!!!!!!!!!!!!
The Dietitian's Guide to Eating Bugs by Daniel Calder is a comprehensive guide to the nutritional content of insects. He believes insect breeding and consumption are important elements sustainable living, particularly when it comes to complementing foraged plant material with meat products. Numerous insects contain nutrients similar to those found in more conventional livestock, except the feed to conversion ratio is much higher and they're much cheaper to breed. You can find the book at scribd. Also available in e-book format for $35. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBb060OPegg
I’m Amy, foodie, nutritionist, recipe developer, wife, and busy mom of 2. I am on a mission to create everyday nutritious recipes that taste absolutely DELICIOUS!!! I love comfort food with a healthy twist. Follow me as I share the simple meals I make for my family. I’ll make meal planning easy by telling you exactly what we eat every week! Read More

Hi! I feel kind of silly, since everybody else seems to be enjoying this bread but for me.. well – I managed to make a mess out of it. How come my bread turned out a pile of dry flour? I double-checked the recipe to see if I missed something, but I followed the recipe exactly. Can you think of something I could have done wrong? I would really love to make this bread! Thanks =)
Jump up ^ Ramsden, C.; Faurot, K.; Carrera-Bastos, P.; Cordain, L.; De Lorgeril, M.; Sperling, L. (2009). "Dietary Fat Quality and Coronary Heart Disease Prevention: A Unified Theory Based on Evolutionary, Historical, Global, and Modern Perspectives". Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine. 11 (4): 289–301. doi:10.1007/s11936-009-0030-8. PMID 19627662.
I made this last night and it turned out great! I used Bob’s Red Mill almond flour which I know you don’t usually recommend and subbed 1/8 cup chia seed for the flax because that’s what I had on hand and it worked well. We’ve had grilled cheese and peanut butter sandwiches so far. My son is autistic and a very picky eater, and sometimes we have a hard time getting him the protein he needs so this recipe helps a lot. Thanks, Elana!
Hi Maya, I’m new to your website and I’m anxious to try out this bread recipe. I’m helping my 27 year old son lose some weight. He’s on some pretty potent medication that has caused him to crave carbs thus putting on quite a bit of weight over the past few years. Since I’m his caregiver and also a Certified Nutritionist, I’m looking for some healthy alternatives to make his transition a bit easier and he loves bread. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0vX92H9KpVA
There were some recipes I tried that were decent enough and definitely passable as bread-like concoctions, but nothing was stellar. Or even good enough to warrant making a second time (IMHO). And there were also a few loaves that were actually pretty bad in different ways – either the flavor and/or the texture was just off – that ended up only being fit for the garbage (definitely a sad thing). But that’s how we learn, right? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-TXEys0wR-E

Thank you so much for this recipe! I’ve made it several times and I love it for myself. I have tried many versions: coconut oil, ghee, butter, coconut cream, refrigerated coconut milk from a can, shaken (after a couple of days in the fridge) and full fat yogurt. I always beat my eggs for 2-3 minutes (by hand) until very frothy before adding the wet ingredients then beat them again after incorporating wet ingredients to get them thick. Although I like them all, I have had the best results for rising (and actual ‘bread-like’ texture and loft) from coconut oil and yogurt. My husband eats gluten-free but not paleo so when his favourite GF bread was out at the store he was stuck (he’s a ‘must eat sandwich for lunch’ guy and we’ve tried all the GF varieties in our store, some of them complete rocks!). I offered to make him a loaf and he accepted (he’s had this loaf before but felt it’s texture was more like a banana bread or zucchini bread than sandwich material). I got rave reviews from him today about the bread for his sandwich (made with coconut oil and yogurt). Total convert!!
The paleo diet runs on the same foods our hunter-gather ancestors supposedly ate: fruits, vegetables, meats, seafood, and nuts. "By following these nutritional guidelines, we put our diet more in line with the evolutionary pressures that shaped our current genetics, which in turn positively influences health and well being," says Loren Cordain, PhD, professor of health and exercise science at Colorado State University and author of The Paleo Diet. He says the diet lessens the body's glycemic load, has a healthy ratio of saturated-to-unsaturated fatty acids, increases vitamin and nutrient consumption, and contains an optimal balance of protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Another possibility is that maybe your oven is not well calibrater (which is normal) and your bread needed to cook longer. I suggest next time you insert the stick in a few areas to ensure it’s done throughout. Also, it’s a good idea to purchase an oven thermometer to ensure the temperature is where you want it during baking. They cost less that $20, I got mine for less than $10.

This is the best Paleo bread I have ever had!! I have tried quite a few recipes, this one was easy and so delicious. I did do a few things differently, I used coconut oil instead of palm shortening, as that is what I had on hand. And I had no round molds so I put the batter in a glass loaf pan and it worked out just fine for me! Absolutely delicious, thank you, this will be made regularly in my kitchen!!!


Thank you thank you thank you! 🙂 My kids and my husband do paleo but they do miss sandwiches on occasion and I hate buying gluten free bread. Never tastes right, has weird texture, very expensive, and they still have funky ingredients! I’m always on the hunt for good paleo bread recipes and have found few but I’m always excited when I see one that looks to be very promising! Will be trying this tonight for lunches this week.
Thank you so much for this recipe. I’ve made this recipe and your simple bread recipe and both came out perfect right from the start. I did follow the recipes EXACTLY, except for the fact that I don’t have a food processor so I had to “pulse” by hand which led me to believe that I had to stir in ingredients in large minimal swoops being careful not to over mix. Wondering if that is what other people had done when they’ve made this recipe without a food processor? As I said, it came out perfectly. just wondering if I was just lucky.

I’ve been thinking about bringing paleo-friendly bread and rolls to LCK for some time now. But I knew before I did that I needed to make sure they fit specific criteria. They need the right flavor and fluffy, soft, air-y, bread-like texture. You see, I’ve never bothered buying gluten-free breads in the store. I never thought it was worth it because I always felt they were dense, not the right flavor, etc.
I love this bread, and so do my German, bread-loving children! Hearty, rich German bread is the best in the world so that’s no small praise. I have a regular glass loaf pan, and adapt the recipe to make a full-size loaf. I add 1 extra egg (very large) and increase other ingredients 25%. Baking time is usually 5-10 minutes longer, although I reduce the temperature to 325 after it begins to brown to compensate for the glass pan. Topped with butter or pumpkin seed butter, this is my 3-year-old son’s favorite “treat” ever! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_6RGTb3Yki0

I was curious about the pan and found a very interesting 1 out of 5 star review on Amazon. The customer who purchased and used the pan not only got a metallic taste in her(?) first loaf, but the bread was also tinged green. She had to throw the bread away. I do not know if it would get better with use and washings, but she gave a good enough argument for me to avoid this buying this particular pan.
Sweden's Staffan Lindeberg has a home page Paleolithic Diet in Medical Nutrition [archive.org]. A recent study of Staffan's has A Paleolithic diet improving glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Also see his first web page, an overview of his Kitava study: On the Benefits of Ancient Diets. Now he has a book Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective. Here's a book review: Easy to Read, Informative, Packed with Footnotes on Studies.
Wow! Thank you, thank you thank you! I’ve been paleo for 2 months- already dropped a dress size (back to my usual size) and feel more energetic, despite numerous health problems- have tried other paleo ‘bread’ recepie’s but they have all been variations of ‘omelette’ . I read these ingredients with eager anticipitation and…… Despite already trying 5 shops for Arrowroot powder, steeled myself for further search. Shop 7 I found it. It came In a pack of 6 x sachets of 1 tablespoon each serving. Have to say when I tipped them all in it was slightly under the amount required and I was worried the slightly less amount would have a detrimental effect..BUT…all other ingredients I followed to the exact recipe…. I lined my loaf tin with baking paper and prayed for success…….I got it out after 25 mins….put it back in……35 mins….. Back in….45 mins…..back in……by 55 mins the top was pretty brown so I covered it in foil ….and put it back in….. After 75 mins the tooth pick was still showing moist after sticking it in the middle so I took the whole loaf out, took it out of the the tin and paper and put it in- upside down- back in the tin for another 15 mins. The loaf stuck horribly to the paper. Couldn’t understand why but, whilst the loaf cooked upside down, I enjoyed peeling the stuck bits off the paper and eating them- delicious. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-i2oZWK2pM

Richard Nikoley has the blog Free The Animal. He loves meat eating. His diet is near paleo, with the addition of some gray-area foods that he likes. These days most of his posts are on food. One recent trend in the paleo community is trying to optimize the proportions of the foods eaten. If you've read my definition you'll know that I simply define the diet as foods in and out. One of Richard's posts: Optimality: A Fool's Errand? has produced a long discussion of this trend.


Anna, I haven’t tried making this bread without the vinegar, so I don’t know for sure how the recipe would fare without it. Vinegar here is used not only for the right flavor, but also to react with the leavening agent and create the proper rise for the bread. If you take out the vinegar, you’ll need to replace it with another acid. Can you tolerate lemon juice? If so, I’d try this recipe using 2 to 3 teaspoons of fresh lemon juice in place of the vinegar. Let me know how it goes if you give it a try! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dp4eauYLoYc
Error msg again, sorry if this is redundant….lilely to not be as flowely, need to care for mom…………but I owe you great thanks…….keep you efforts us………I care for my 87 yr old mum……I keep her bs stable, I keep her contented………she loves your recipes….I am working to protect my husband who has numbers I do not like………I keep cooking to take care of everyoone……thankyou for taking the time to poste……I know my mum will have time defined by God……plan to kleep my spouse by my side so long as God can tolerate his absence………..ok, I am somewhat different…….but, this is about you, not me, so, thankyou for your efforts………………..sleep well………..luckylin
This bread, I guess you could say, has more of a “cake-y” texture than a real “bread-y” feel to it: it’s really soft and moist, kind of like a heavy pound cake, perhaps, but one that would be savory. Not an unpleasant texture at all, if you ask me, and it’s so crazy tasty and more-ish, you soon get to thinking that you’d much rather be eating this than any old piece of traditional bread.

I am new to walking the Primal path, but was already missing bread and sandwiches. Thanks so much for this recipe. I made it today and it came out great. After reading all the reviews about the center not baking, I inserted my oven thermometer into the center of the loaf after 25 minutes of baking. Then I set the thermometer to alarm when it reached 195 degrees F. (That is halfway between the 190 degrees I use for white bread and 200 degrees I use for banana bread.) The center was nicely baked. Hopefully this will help others who try this recipe.


These are AMAZING! I have celiac and was diagnosed about 4 months ago. It’s been very difficult and bread is what I miss most. Unfortunately, GF bread is not very tasty-i’ve tried a number of brands and have tried making my own. I love the simplicity of the recipe as well. Thank you for creating amazing clean recipes, your cookie bars are also fabulous!
I just came across this recipe as I am venturing into the Paleo world, as well as looking for recipes for my daughter who has really bad eczema and is off dairy, eggs (whites), wheat and soy. Do you think an egg replacer would work OK in this recipe? I’ll probably give it a try with the replacer I got from Whole Foods, but was wondering if anyone had already tried this recipe without eggs? I don’t know if ghee will work for her if she has to be dairy-free. Would coconut oil work the same? Thanks for any help/input! 🙂
Made this bread the other night and it is so wonderful!!.Love it slightly warmed with a pat of butter.My only problem is that it did not rise that much so can’t really use for a sandwich.My eggs were not fresh nor my refrigerated flaxseed meal..I used a glass loaf pan (buttered).I did cook at 350 degrees for the 30 min and it came out wonderful!!Thanks so much for the recipe.I love the recipes with honey and/or stevia, sucanat or rapadura. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RRCgH9ZQj2o
I too think it’s funny how many people basically ask permission to do substitutions, as if the recipe police will come down on them or something, or like you eluded to that maybe you can predict the exact outcome of every possible substitution. Victim of your own success!! : ) You are pretty good Elana so we won’t be surprised if you develop baking clairvoyance. Thank you for this recipe, after going Paleo this year I’ve really wanted to find some baking recipes I could feel good about eating. Excited to try this!!!
Hi! I feel kind of silly, since everybody else seems to be enjoying this bread but for me.. well – I managed to make a mess out of it. How come my bread turned out a pile of dry flour? I double-checked the recipe to see if I missed something, but I followed the recipe exactly. Can you think of something I could have done wrong? I would really love to make this bread! Thanks =)
Hi Tessa, almond flour is actually very moist and doesn’t soak up much moisture. It can make baked goods oily and super moist sometimes. There are many brands that sell almond flour now, but not all work well or give you the same result when baking. The brands I found work best for baking are by Honeyville and Welbee’s. I also always use the blanched flour in my recipes. What brand did you use? I am happy you like my recipe. Please let me know how it goes when you try making it again and post a photo here so I can see.

I love this recipe and I have one slight problem, during baking the top cracks on either one or both sides and puffs up, which crates a separation from the rest of the loaf. Still tastes great though. I’m wondering if it’s from either not mixing enough or mixing too much in the food processor or if there is something else I’m doing wrong? Not sure how I can send you a picture of todays load?!
The Dietitian's Guide to Eating Bugs by Daniel Calder is a comprehensive guide to the nutritional content of insects. He believes insect breeding and consumption are important elements sustainable living, particularly when it comes to complementing foraged plant material with meat products. Numerous insects contain nutrients similar to those found in more conventional livestock, except the feed to conversion ratio is much higher and they're much cheaper to breed. You can find the book at scribd. Also available in e-book format for $35. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--BtnfD9RmE
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