I’ve perused your bread recipe offerings (which I hadn’t really looked at previously since we mostly just opt-out of bread-type products) and am wondering which you would most recommend as a kid-pleaser to try in the challah mold. Additionally, I am wondering if you’ve ever played around with a potato-based bread option? I would prefer something that is not entirely flour based (including nut flours), if it is possible . . . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aH5IqMjQm7U

Fattening cattle with corn changes the lipid balance and is clearly not the natural diet for a grass eating cow. In Simple change in cattle diets could cut E. coli infection researchers have found that when cattle were fed hay or grass for just five days before slaughter, much less E. Coli cells were present in the animal's feces and virtually all surviving E. coli bacteria were not acid-resistant and were killed by human stomach acid.

My bread came out a teeny bit “eggy”…which wasn’t bad, I still enjoyed it. Maybe some egg yolk made it in the batter??? Anyway, the slight egginess made me think of French toast. So with the last few pieces, that’s what I made. I mixed an egg, heavy cream, and a little vanilla to coat the bread…used browned butter to sub for syrup…then topped off with Swerve confectioners sugar. It was delicious!
Well I whipped the eggs. I will pour it in a little at a time. I may have went to fast. I’m making your exact recipe on the next batch. It looks so good and perfect for a sandwich. I can use mine for sandwich also and makes great toast. I want to master your original recipe. So waiting on my Honeyville flour. Thanks the recipe is loved by everyone that’s tried it and your other recipes as well. I will be waiting for the video.
ok my bread did not quite look like this.it had ammonia scents. serious…. seriously working recipes….open to suggestion…my husband’s mum was a a baker…..I fail at every attempt to provide. Your assistance is helpful.thx I am the ever so lucky lin..plan to stay lucky….(ps do this b/c my bs is borderline.fasting bs +90……..and though, my spouse refuses to acknowledge it he has issues as wel).180 after a mango whatever…I love this man, and plan to keep him with me. forever….pls assist..so tired of numbers that are compromised….bull ..we are a unique community because we care…many others are impacted, they just do not connect… We are the only people who appear to care about what elevated glucose does to people….I care for my mum…….she is blind…..confused……multiple strokes..pls, keep helping…Mom was a pilot, a photograhpher, an independent woman from the age of 15. Now, she lves in a bedroom, vision gone, and momory deplleted…….life does not have to end this way. She loves your recipes……I prep them……you have made her happy…love, lucky lin……….. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fFYJLWGqR_0
I don’t have dietary issues and do not adhere to a strict paleo diet. I do, however, have a raging sweet tooth that I try to keep in check by eating a low glycemic diet day to day, and limit high glycemic foods to those times when I am deliberately treating myself to “sweets”. This bread is more the texture of “quick bread” (like banana, or zucchini), which was a surprise. Its very tasty and satisfying, almost rich. This bread will be a good delivery system for peanut butter and bananas or soft boiled eggs.
Thanks for asking (kinda). Back in the day, about two years ago, I baked nonstop. I baked even more than I do now that I have a food blog (which is A LOT). Every day, I would make 4-6 batches of cookies. Then, I’d make nice cream (which was called banana soft serve back then), meal prep for the next two weeks, then spend the night putting together packages for my sisters.
I just put this bread together and I think something is missing in the ingredients? It did not “pour” into bread pan as recipe suggests, it was more like a crumbly dough. I went over my steps again and again and can’t find any steps or measurements I missed. Has anyone made this yet? I have it in the oven any way as I’m not very good at figuring out what to do, so I hope it turns out! Elana, I am truly enjoying your almond flour cook book and your website is so inspiring! Thanx!
Sweden's Staffan Lindeberg has a home page Paleolithic Diet in Medical Nutrition [archive.org]. A recent study of Staffan's has A Paleolithic diet improving glucose tolerance more than a Mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease. Also see his first web page, an overview of his Kitava study: On the Benefits of Ancient Diets. Now he has a book Food and Western Disease: Health and nutrition from an evolutionary perspective. Here's a book review: Easy to Read, Informative, Packed with Footnotes on Studies.

As you might expect from the previous paragraph, eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables naturally leads to higher fiber intake. Dietary fiber is essential for good health, and despite what you’ve probably heard, whole grains aren’t the place to find it. Non-starchy vegetables contain eight times more fiber than whole grains and 31 times more fiber than refined grains. Even fruits contain twice as much fiber as whole grains and seven times more fiber than refined grains! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YnDzsN7ksME
Andrew. it probably was almond flour and they called it powder to let people know it was finely ground. I think next time be sure to preheat your oven and if you can get an oven thermometer to make sure the temperature is where you want it. Also, use arrowroot instead of tapioca if you can find it. You could blend the wet ingredients in a blender or beat the eggs well. You can also beat the egg whites until stiff peaks form and then gently fold that into the batter to give your bread more lift. Keep me posted please 🙂
A decade ago, when I was on the low-fat craze, I’d make fluffy cakes using no butter/fat, replacing it with apple sauce, which gives moisture and a soft texture. These days, I’m a low-carb girl, but a 1/4 cup of apple sauce divided by 4 = only 1 tablespoon (per roll/per 2nd day). I’m okay with that, especially because I substitute half the tapioca flour (high-carb) for whey protein powder to cut a few carbs that way. 🙂 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKFa7KW3Nmk
Bought this probably about a year ago or so... Finally decide to try it. WOW!!! It's been 18 days and I've lost over 16 pounds, and I've been eating all I want, and am never going hungry, so I have no cravings for anything, fresh home-made Italian bread or even my all-time favorite corn-type snacks, especially popcorn. Tried some hi carb, processed foods after the first week... felt like crap and lost my desire to eat them. I assume I will plateau one of these days and will have to start exercising, but right now I have a sedentary lifestyle with my job and additional personal activities.
This is the best grain-free bread recipe I have ever tried. I didn’t have the loaf pan so I used one of my small casserole dishes and it came out square and a little darker around the edges. I used 1 1/2oz. of coconut oil and mixed it with 1/2oz. of melted butter and it came out really moist. It also came out dark like whole wheat bread, so I am assuming that I used just a little too much flax meal. I love you for taking the time to perfect this!!! I’m thinking of making a spice bread next time. Let you know if it works!!
Fruits are not only delicious, but they’re also great for you. That said, fruits (even paleo-approved ones) contain large amounts of fructose which, while much better than HFCS (high-fructose corn syrup), is still sugar. If you’re looking to lose weight on the paleo diet, you’ll want to cut back on your fruit intake and focus more on the vegetables allowed on the paleo diet. However, feel free to have one to three servings of fruit a day. Check out this list of paleo diet fruits and see if you’re not hungry by the end! (We’ll admit, we’re partial to blackberries!)
I’ve perused your bread recipe offerings (which I hadn’t really looked at previously since we mostly just opt-out of bread-type products) and am wondering which you would most recommend as a kid-pleaser to try in the challah mold. Additionally, I am wondering if you’ve ever played around with a potato-based bread option? I would prefer something that is not entirely flour based (including nut flours), if it is possible . . . https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aH5IqMjQm7U

Hi Faith, I make a similar bread almost every day (from the Plant Paradox Cookbook), and it calls for full fat coconut milk…it works great as well. I will try your apple cider vinegar today, as the recipe I’ve been using calls for red wine vinegar. Thanks so much for posting, and thank you for the Arrowroot substitution…sometimes it can be a challenge to find! :-D https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ip69hOWsSls
I finally made this recipe BUT as I was about to add the water, I had a choking fit. When I finally recovered I finished adding the ingredients. The mixture looked really dry but I added it to the pan baked it. With 10 minutes left baking, I found the water on the window sill. Hmmmm, I finished baking it and tasted the biscuit like mound. I must say, it tastes delicious still. 🤗

I have made 4 loaves so far. First one was the best, I used olive oil. The remaining 3 did rise but only in the center of the loaf. I did add sunflower and pumpkin seeds plus a few goji berries in the 3 loves and wondering if it’s making is heavy. I also increased the cooking time to 45 mins.. the bread tastes amazing!!!!!! Even my moody teenager was beaming with pleasure while she went through half a loaf! Any thoughts why it’s rising only in the center? Thanks for the recipe ☺️
Wowwwww!!! This is amazing. I had to change the recipe a bit (I followed the top recipe) because of lack of ingredients. I used Raw Almond Flour (not blanched); I used only three eggs + one chia egg + one flax egg; and my pan was about 8.5*4, so a bit bigger than recommended; I did not use the food processor, just mixed everything with a whisk and a spoon. Even though the pan was larger the height was great, and I’ve never had such a moist bread. Incredible! It is so delicious and wonderful. And so easy to make!! Thank you so much- I haven’t eaten anything like this since quitting gluten. This will be my go-to bread from now on.
But critics argue that the unlimited amount of red meat the paleo diet allows may have an adverse effect on heart health in people with diabetes, as research links eating red meat in excess to poor heart health. (11)  If you have diabetes and don’t moderate your red-meat intake, this could be a big problem, as people with diabetes are 2 times as likely to die of heart disease as people who do not have diabetes. (12)
We cannot time travel and join our Paleo ancestors by the campfire as they prepare to eat; likewise, shards of ancient pottery and fossilized teeth can tell us only so much. If we compare the diets of so-called modern hunter-gatherers, however, we see just how difficult it is to find meaningful commonalities and extract useful dietary guidelines from their disparate lives (see infographic). Which hunter–gatherer tribe are we supposed to mimic, exactly? How do we reconcile the Inuit diet—mostly the flesh of sea mammals—with the more varied plant and land animal diet of the Hadza or !Kung? Chucking the many different hunter–gather diets into a blender to come up with some kind of quintessential smoothie is a little ridiculous. "Too often modern health problems are portrayed as the result of eating 'bad' foods that are departures from the natural human diet…This is a fundamentally flawed approach to assessing human nutritional needs," Leonard wrote. "Our species was not designed to subsist on a single, optimal diet. What is remarkable about human beings is the extraordinary variety of what we eat. We have been able to thrive in almost every ecosystem on the Earth, consuming diets ranging from almost all animal foods among populations of the Arctic to primarily tubers and cereal grains among populations in the high Andes.”
thank you for prompt reply. I do hope it tastes better than other low carb bread I’ve made and thrown out because I dislike the taste and sometimes it was too wet. It looks great so will try and report back. I must find something I like as at the moment am tucking into “normal” bread and that’s not good for my wastline or my diabetes. Thanks for the inspiring recipes.
Hi Chocmak , thank you for your feedback. I am happy in the end you were able to find the arrowroot and your bread turned out good. The cost of the ingredients here in the US are not cheap either but I save money by buying online and in bulk. I have a link to the ingredients and brands just below the recipe. If for some reason you can’t purchase these from Amazon, you can probably purchase these ingredients directly from the company and have them shipped to you. You may be able to find arrowroot in asian sores as well.
I haven’t tested this recipe without tapioca starch, but in the Notes section above I list a few of the substitutions I’ve tested and had success with. Tapioca starch helps to add rise and bounce to this loaf, making it somewhat “fluffy” and closer to the texture of regular bread. If you decide to experiment with this recipe using something other than tapioca starch, please let me know what works!
Hi Winston! If you use the recommended size baking pan, the bread will be the proper height. If you use a pan that is bigger than the one I used, your bread will rise, but it won’t fill the pan to the right height. Here’s an example that might help –if you place 1/2 cup of water in a 1/2 measuring cup it will be 100% full to the top of the cup. If you put the same 1/2 cup of water in a 1 cup measuring cup it will only fill it 50% and will only be 1/2 full in height. That’s why a loaf pan that is too large doesn’t work for this recipe when it comes to the bread “rising” and the height of the loaf :-)
The rationale for the Paleolithic diet derives from proponents' claims relating to evolutionary medicine.[22] Advocates of the diet state that humans were genetically adapted to eating specifically those foods that were readily available to them in their local environments. These foods therefore shaped the nutritional needs of Paleolithic humans. They argue that the physiology and metabolism of modern humans have changed little since the Paleolithic era.[23] Natural selection is a long process, and the cultural and lifestyle changes introduced by western culture have occurred quickly. The argument is that modern humans have therefore not been able to adapt to the new circumstances.[24] The agricultural revolution brought the addition of grains and dairy to the diet.[25]
I just made the paleo bread and I am enjoying a warm slice as I type this comment. I wanted to share that I substituted pure maple syrup for the honey and used a blender to mix since I don’t own a food processor. The loaf still came out delicious and moist. I wish I could submit a picture of my wonderful looking loaf. Thanks for sharing your recipes.
If you're interested in the paleo plan but don't think you want to be so strict, you don't have to be all-or-nothing with your approach. Consider adopting some eating patterns from paleo and skipping the ones that don't work for you. For example, try just eating more fruits and vegetables and cutting down on added sugars. If you feel unsure about grains or dairy, talk to your doctor or a registered dietitian to determine what's best for your body.
Hi hi, not sure if this will help but you can use chia seeds in place of eggs. 1 tbsp to 4-5 tbsp of water. Whisk and let it sit in the fridge for 15 minutes. You may need to add more water if the mix is too thick, when I make it I aim for the consistency of raw egg, so goopy but a little runny. You can sub 1 tbsp of chia seeds for 1 egg in any recipe, Goodluck!!
A decade ago, when I was on the low-fat craze, I’d make fluffy cakes using no butter/fat, replacing it with apple sauce, which gives moisture and a soft texture. These days, I’m a low-carb girl, but a 1/4 cup of apple sauce divided by 4 = only 1 tablespoon (per roll/per 2nd day). I’m okay with that, especially because I substitute half the tapioca flour (high-carb) for whey protein powder to cut a few carbs that way. 🙂
I don’t have dietary issues and do not adhere to a strict paleo diet. I do, however, have a raging sweet tooth that I try to keep in check by eating a low glycemic diet day to day, and limit high glycemic foods to those times when I am deliberately treating myself to “sweets”. This bread is more the texture of “quick bread” (like banana, or zucchini), which was a surprise. Its very tasty and satisfying, almost rich. This bread will be a good delivery system for peanut butter and bananas or soft boiled eggs.
I am not over weight. I am quite small actually. Maybe just need to tone up. I have severe fibromyalgia. After my doctor and I have done tons of research and learning more and more about it we found that I need to cut out a bunch of stuff that I consume to help lower my inflammation, exhaustion and digestive problems. Very frustrating. After more research I have learned that the Paleo “diet” is pretty spot on to how I know have to eat. I am so grateful to have a guidline to follow and not doing this alone. I am tired of being in chronic pain everyday all day. Along with other things I am doing to help my body be restored Paleo sounds to be a promising adventure. I’ll make sure to post after a month or two to tell you if my heath has improved. Thank you for putting the extra effort into putting out the information for us.

Made this bread the other night and it is so wonderful!!.Love it slightly warmed with a pat of butter.My only problem is that it did not rise that much so can’t really use for a sandwich.My eggs were not fresh nor my refrigerated flaxseed meal..I used a glass loaf pan (buttered).I did cook at 350 degrees for the 30 min and it came out wonderful!!Thanks so much for the recipe.I love the recipes with honey and/or stevia, sucanat or rapadura.
OMGee! This is fantastic! Even my husband said this bread was amazing, and he normally dislikes anything made with almond flour. The ultimate test will be son, who I still buy normal bread for, as he doesn’t have to be gluten free, like my daughter and I. I didn’t put the palm shortening in as I didn’t have any, but don’t think it really needs it. I doubled the recipe (so glad I did), and used my English muffin rings, it made 6 of them. Enough for dinner tonight and lunch for my daughter tomorrow. Can’t wait to try more of your recipes!
I have made the new recipe many times and it is really delicious. By mistake I used regular almond flour and the bread came out just as tasty as if I had used blanched almond flour. Also, coconut flour is not available where I live, so I substituted the same amount of unsweetened shredded coconut, and 1/4 cup oil for the coconut oil, since my friends said the bread had too much of a coconut flavor. The substitutions worked just fine and the bread was delicious!!! Maybe it would be even more delicious if I followed your recipe exactly, but even my son, who usually does not like “healthy” food, told me it was really good, and keeps helping himself to more slices everythime I make it.
Thank you for sharing this recipe, I made them in a 8 inch square baking dish and cut into 4, which worked great! I just bought a muffin top pan today and will be using that to make a double batch this weekend! Taste and texture of these are amazing! Just what I needed for sandwiches to take to work! NOW, I’m intrigued and will be trying your other recipes! Thanks again 🙂
I just wanted to mention, because I don’t believe it has come up yet, that I substituted ground sunflower seeds for the almond flour (they are much cheaper and I have successfully used them in many almond flour recipes!) however I noticed something very odd this time… the bread was green when it came out of the oven! I was stumped, but after some research, found out that baking soda reacts with the chlorophyll in sunflower seeds and turns them green.
Coconut Flour: As Lexi pointed out Coconut Flour is not a 1:1 ratio. Coconut flour absorbs a LOT of liquid, so you have to either combine it with other flours in light quantaties, or use 6 eggs for every 1/2 cup of flour. Yes, I said 6 eggs with every ONE HALF cup of coconut flour. You can also use various liquids. Either way, it needs to have the same consistency as it would if you used the almond flour, it should be thin like pancake. If not it will out very dense.

Evolutionary biologist Marlene Zuk writes that the idea that our genetic makeup today matches that of our ancestors is misconceived, and that in debate Cordain was "taken aback" when told that 10,000 years was "plenty of time" for an evolutionary change in human digestive abilities to have taken place.[4]:114 On this basis Zuk dismisses Cordain's claim that the paleo diet is "the one and only diet that fits our genetic makeup".[4] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwP8C9wjYaY

Just made this bread tonight and I love the texture. I am still deciding on the taste. It reminds me of cornbread which isn’t a bad thing, necessarily. I think when I make an actual sandwich out of it I will not even notice the difference. Also thinking it could be good for a casserole of some sort. We also had your Chipotle Orange Chicken and that was a big hit! I am loving this site, a huge THANK YOU!

I just put this bread together and I think something is missing in the ingredients? It did not “pour” into bread pan as recipe suggests, it was more like a crumbly dough. I went over my steps again and again and can’t find any steps or measurements I missed. Has anyone made this yet? I have it in the oven any way as I’m not very good at figuring out what to do, so I hope it turns out! Elana, I am truly enjoying your almond flour cook book and your website is so inspiring! Thanx!
I just came across this recipe as I am venturing into the Paleo world, as well as looking for recipes for my daughter who has really bad eczema and is off dairy, eggs (whites), wheat and soy. Do you think an egg replacer would work OK in this recipe? I’ll probably give it a try with the replacer I got from Whole Foods, but was wondering if anyone had already tried this recipe without eggs? I don’t know if ghee will work for her if she has to be dairy-free. Would coconut oil work the same? Thanks for any help/input! 🙂
We did the same thing with sunflower sead butter in paleo bread the other day. We ran out of cashew butter (as the recipe called for) and filled in the final put with sunflower seed butter. Top half of the bread turned bright green! Some in the house wouldn’t eat it, but I loved it! And it was pretty cool when we looked up why it happened. Excited to try this recipe, thanks for sharing!

Grass-fed meat is recommended on the paleo diet because it is leaner than meat from grain-fed animals and has more omega-3 fatty acids, the healthy fats that reduce inflammation in the body and protect your heart. A typical American diet is high in saturated and trans fats and lower in healthy poly- and monounsaturated fats, hence the paleo diet's emphasis on grass-fed meats, as well as seafood.


We cannot time travel and join our Paleo ancestors by the campfire as they prepare to eat; likewise, shards of ancient pottery and fossilized teeth can tell us only so much. If we compare the diets of so-called modern hunter-gatherers, however, we see just how difficult it is to find meaningful commonalities and extract useful dietary guidelines from their disparate lives (see infographic). Which hunter–gatherer tribe are we supposed to mimic, exactly? How do we reconcile the Inuit diet—mostly the flesh of sea mammals—with the more varied plant and land animal diet of the Hadza or !Kung? Chucking the many different hunter–gather diets into a blender to come up with some kind of quintessential smoothie is a little ridiculous. "Too often modern health problems are portrayed as the result of eating 'bad' foods that are departures from the natural human diet…This is a fundamentally flawed approach to assessing human nutritional needs," Leonard wrote. "Our species was not designed to subsist on a single, optimal diet. What is remarkable about human beings is the extraordinary variety of what we eat. We have been able to thrive in almost every ecosystem on the Earth, consuming diets ranging from almost all animal foods among populations of the Arctic to primarily tubers and cereal grains among populations in the high Andes.” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cwQgjq0mCdE

If dinner has no dessert, is it really a meal? Hell no! But when you’re following a Paleo diet, it can feel like there’s a real lack of dessert options. Don’t stress, sweet fiends, we’ve got you covered. Yes, certain foods aren’t part of the Paleo plate, but that doesn’t mean you’re entering a time without treats. We’ve rounded up some of the best Paleo-friendly desserts to satisfy your prehistoric sweet tooth. So stock up on staples like almond and coconut flours and coconut oil because these desserts are so tasty, you'll want to eat at least one daily.

Hi Winston! If you use the recommended size baking pan, the bread will be the proper height. If you use a pan that is bigger than the one I used, your bread will rise, but it won’t fill the pan to the right height. Here’s an example that might help –if you place 1/2 cup of water in a 1/2 measuring cup it will be 100% full to the top of the cup. If you put the same 1/2 cup of water in a 1 cup measuring cup it will only fill it 50% and will only be 1/2 full in height. That’s why a loaf pan that is too large doesn’t work for this recipe when it comes to the bread “rising” and the height of the loaf :-)
Woot woot for AB bars!!! Yep I still say it. If we if we keep saying it long enough it will probably become cool again…just like floral curtains???? I appreciate how you give all the nut butters their proper chance to be showcased, no playing mess-prone goop favorites. But since today is about AB I have to admit I had an almond butter phase too actually. It was more about excessive almond butter eating though, not making???? (Have you ever tried Justin’s vanilla AB? Probs not since you make your own. But I’m pretty sure there is crack (or frosting) in there, it’s too good.) I tried making my own once, overheated the food processor, never tried again. And honestly just the thought of that goopy greasy cleanup is enough to make me run to the store…I admire your lack of baking laziness???? Buying it also means one less step between me and me shoving THESE in my face, and I am all for speeding up that!! A batch of these and the PB ones so I can do a side-by-side please! And if ever you do go back to cray 500 cookies a day BB, I call at least 50 of them, kay? Love ya❤️❤️ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jqjDrTy_n5c
As much as I love your recipes, what your calling paleo isn’t really paleo. For examplpe, apple cider vinegar, agave nectar, and salt aren’t paleo foods. There is a lot of hype out there about eating paleo. As a nutritionist, I find some of the claims about what paleo is disconcerting and confusing. I hope people are seeking help when they are following any “diet.”
I really do hope you read this. It may make a difference to some people. I know it makes a huge difference to me. I tried your paleo bread recipe and several other bread recipes on other websites. I kept tasting a bitter undertone in the bread. Every time it would just make me gag. I finally figured it out that it’s the almond flour. It makes sense now, since almonds DO have a bitter aftertaste. But it usually doesn’t matter when using whole or chopped almonds. So I tried your paleo bread recipe by replacing it with cashew flour. I had to make the flour myself in the vitamix blender, but it worked real well. AT LAST, NO BITTER UNDERTONE! I recommend informing people that cashew flour is an alternative. The only problem I have now is that it still doesn’t have that wheat bread taste. I tried increasing the flax seed meal to 1/2 cup and reducing the cashew flour to 1 3/4 cups but the flax seed meal still didn’t shine through. I know flax seed meal has the potential to create the taste. I intend to increase it further in my next attempt. BTW, I’m not worried about the phytoestrogens in flax seed because my naturopathic doctor says it doesn’t act like real estrogen.

Is there any place to get organic almond flour–and please don’t talk about Bob’s Red Mills. Most of their products are NOT organic and that includes their almond flour. I am pretty disciplined about not using chemically grown food. Also, since most American almonds come from California there is the added concern about whether they are watered with waste water from oil companies.


Several examples of recent and relatively speedy human evolution underscore that our anatomy and genetics have not been set in stone since the stone age. Within a span of 7,000 years, for instance, people adapted to eating dairy by developing lactose tolerance. Usually, the gene encoding an enzyme named lactase—which breaks down lactose sugars in milk—shuts down after infancy; when dairy became prevalent, many people evolved a mutation that kept the gene turned on throughout life. Likewise, the genetic mutation responsible for blue eyes likely arose between 6,000 and 10,000 years ago. And in regions where malaria is common, natural selection has modified people's immune systems and red blood cells in ways that help them resist the mosquito-borne disease; some of these genetic mutations appeared within the last 10,000 or even 5,000 years. The organisms with which we share our bodies have evolved even faster, particularly the billions of bacteria living in our intestines. Our gut bacteria interact with our food in many ways, helping us break down tough plant fibers, but also competing for calories. We do not have direct evidence of which bacterial species thrived in Paleolithic intestines, but we can be sure that their microbial communities do not exactly match our own. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2lTSvNt_hZo
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