A great question to ask is “Does the Paleo diet work?” Here we have a head to head comparison between the Paleo diet and Mediterranean diet in insulin resistant Type 2 Diabetics. The results? The Paleo diet group REVERSED the signs and symptoms of insulin resistant, Type 2 diabetes. The Mediterranean diet showed little if any improvements. It is worth noting that the Mediterranean diet is generally held up by our government as “the diet to emulate” despite better alternatives. You can find an abstract and the complete paper here.
I wanted to say thank you for the recipe. I made it today with my Vitamix. I used whole raw almonds and whole flax seed that I ground up in the Vitamix in batches rather than almond flour and flaxseed meal. I substituted two single serving packages of stevia for the honey and mixed everything in the Vitamix. My bread turned out great and tastes wonderful. The almond skins and stevia changed the color a little from the picture on the web site but my loaf still looks good (lighter crust and darker interior). (I used 1.5 cups of whole almonds, 2 tablespoons coconut flour, ¼ cup of whole flaxseeds, ¼ teaspoon salt, 1.5 teaspoons baking soda, 5 large eggs, ¼ cup coconut oil, 2 packets of stevia, and 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in the Magic Loaf Pan.) Thanks again.
I just made the paleo bread and I am enjoying a warm slice as I type this comment. I wanted to share that I substituted pure maple syrup for the honey and used a blender to mix since I don’t own a food processor. The loaf still came out delicious and moist. I wish I could submit a picture of my wonderful looking loaf. Thanks for sharing your recipes.
Does anyone know the carb content of this bread. I just ordered some gf paleo bread from Julian’s bakery, but since it is pricey, I’d like to make my own. I am on a very low carb, paleo type lifestyle. I am also allergic to apples (crazy, right) and sulfites (so no regular vinegar), so I’m a little unsure of what to do about the apple cider vinegar. I may just try it and see if there’s a problem. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QdVlCoQFzIs
I made this bread tonight and it turned out pretty good. It’s tender and has a good crumb. I didn’t have the problems that some had with holes or rawness in the middle. I used four eggs, subbed tapioca flour for the coconut flour since I was out of coconut, and subbed Trader Joe’s ground almond meal (I pretty much exclusively use the TJ’s almond meal when almond flour is called for, and have never had problems). The bread does taste a bit too strongly of soda for my tastebuds, so maybe baking powder would work just as well. I’ll try it next time and report here. My loaf did not rise as much as the photo shows. Comparing the size of the loaf to the jam jar (which is a typical small jam jar) and the spoon in the photo, I think the loaf was probably baked in a smaller pan than the one called for in the recipe. Thus it looks like it rose a lot when it really was just baked in a smaller pan.

In William Calvin's The Ascent of Mind, Chapter 8 he discusses why he thinks that the Acheulian hand-ax (the oldest of the fancy stone tools of Homo erectus) was really a "killer frisbee." He argues that natural selection for throwing accuracy, which requires brain machinery, is the evolutionary scenario for bootstrapping higher intellectual functions. There are many more articles about evolution and human development throughout William's extensive site, though much of it these days is on climate change.

On Wednesday, April 26, 2017 my daughter and I drove to Julian Bakery in Oceanside. It is in a business park and easy to locate. They have a small storefront bakery where they have a few items out to purchase, the bread is actually in the back, and I assume so is most of their other items. They bake on Monday and Tuesday, which is why I chose to go on Wednesday. I wanted freshly made bread and all the bread at the other stores must be kept in the freezer because they are moist and would spoil too quickly otherwise. March 24 I was diagnosed with stage three breast cancer and found out from David Getoff’s website that Paleo bread was the only bread that he would recommend if you HAD to have bread. There are no grains used in Paleo bread and they use Stevia if a sweetener is needed. The bread is more like a banana nut or zucchini bread, moist. It does well in the toaster, but I like the moistness of the bread and sometimes it in plain. (Grains, including all rice, potatoes, etc. turn rapidly into sugar which is BAD for people with cancer. Cancer cells have 9500 receptor sites, while normal cells only have four. Sugar keeps the body in an acid state, which is how cancer can expand so rapidly. ALL microwaved foods turn acidic. Anything fried has a pH level of 4 and below (BAD). Cancer LOVES sugar and fat. So my diet has changed. You can store the bread in the frig for up to 4 weeks. It freezes for about twelve months. The bread is organic and non-gmo. I have been eating mostly organic for quite awhile now and now that I REALLY need to change my diet . . . I will be coming to the Julian Bakery MUCH more in the future!! Elizabeth is a wonderful help, very informative! (She is NOT the person that you speak to on the phone – that person is in another building, in customer service.) This is a little out of the way for me (35 minute drive) but well worth it!! Thank you Julian Bakery!! They also have things for Pegan and something else, but I did not really pay attention because I have to go Paleo . . . 🙂


If you have more questions on specific foods, we’ve included a comprehensive list of paleo diet foods below. We’ve provided a list of the foods that are allowed on the paleo diet. We’ve also broken this list down into the specific food groups, so you can see which meats, vegetables, fruits, nuts, and fats are on the paleo diet. In addition to all of that, we’ve also included a comprehensive list of foods not allowed on the paleo diet.
The Primal Blueprint: Reprogram your genes for effortless weight loss, vibrant health, and boundless energy by Mark Sisson is a journey through human evolution, comparing the life and robust health of our hunter-gatherer ancestors with a day in the life of a modern family. The author offers a solution in 10 empowering Blueprint Lifestyle Laws: eat lots of plants and animals, avoid poisonous things, move frequently at a slow pace, lift heavy things, sprint once in a while, get adequate sleep, play, get adequate sunlight, avoid stupid mistakes, and use your brain. The reader learns how the right high-fat diet can actually help one lose weight and how popular low-fat, grain-based diets might trigger illness, disease, and lifelong weight gain. The author presents a comprehensive, well thought out paleo style eating plan in a humorous and organized manner. He backs up all his work with research, natural wisdom, and historical timelines. He disputes the role of dietary saturated fat in causation of arteriosclerosis, the role of cholesterol in promotion of heart disease, and the costly over-promotion of expensive, potentially toxic statin drugs. He criticizes our massive overeating of refined carbohydrates and urges avoidance of grains, cereals, bread and sugar. There is specific recommendation for "primal" food including more natural healthy fats and meats, fruits, veggies, and nuts. Some reviewers consider this to be the best of the various paleo books. The many Amazon reviews average to 5 stars. The author's popular and worthwhile web site: Mark's Daily Apple. The 2nd Edition was published January 14, 2012.

Often Keto and Paleo recipes get grouped together which is how I found you…I am on Keto though, and the tapioca flour and applesauce bring the carb amounts up too high. Do you have a low carb alternative for these ingredients? Is there a way to sub coconut flour for the tapioca by adjusting the ratios of the coconut flour to liquid. I may be able to get by using the applesauce (I think that will be ok if no more than 1/4 c,) but would still need a compensating liquid. Any suggestions? I so want this to be my answer to a long search for a decent bread substitute.

Take 30 days and give it a shot – cut out the grains and dairy, start eating more vegetables and fruits, eat more humanely raised and non-grain fed meat, cut out the liquid calories and sugar, and see how you feel after the month is up. If you’re analytical and want numbers to use in your final verdict, get your blood work done at the beginning and end of the month.
A decade ago, when I was on the low-fat craze, I’d make fluffy cakes using no butter/fat, replacing it with apple sauce, which gives moisture and a soft texture. These days, I’m a low-carb girl, but a 1/4 cup of apple sauce divided by 4 = only 1 tablespoon (per roll/per 2nd day). I’m okay with that, especially because I substitute half the tapioca flour (high-carb) for whey protein powder to cut a few carbs that way. 🙂

It took me a few days to finally getting around to making these but I did because of your sloppy joe recipe you just posted. They are awesome!!! Next time I will make a double batch of buns! I used a muffin top pan for the buns and they came out perfect for tops and bottoms so I didn’t even have to split them. They bakes up really smooth and held together perfectly for wet sloppy joes! Thanks so much for developing and sharing your recipes. I am definitely becoming one of your biggest followers! Everything you make “works”! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQoCFZzal_s
I made this bread yesterday for the first time, baked well or so I thought an then while cooling it began to cave in the middle, wasn’t fully cooked, put it back in the oven an took forever to cook. Not sure what went wrong😞 I followed the recipe exactly except I didn’t add the flaxseed as I didn’t have any available, bit sure if that would have mattered!! Please share what you think I can correct for next time, otherwise bread was good!!
This bread is so so good! I love that it doesn’t have Cassava flour, which upsets my stomach a little. It was so easy and the recipe is also pretty forgiving. I had a crazy two year old (who I thought would like to “help”) and an infant while I was making this and ended up spilling some of the flours and I didn’t measure very accurately and it still came out amazing! Thank you for the recipe!
So this is really good. Even my non paleo husband enjoyed it. I have to say I’m very glad it’s a forgiving recipe though. I had some weird internet glitch and I started making this recipe but the ingredients were off so I reloaded my page and then the correct ingredients came up. But by then I had already put 6 eggs and too much salt. Still delicious! I used tapioca because i didn’t have arrowroot. Thank you for sharing!

Paleo breads and muffins don’t rise like grain-based recipes do, and it’s that dense quality that makes them rich and indulgent enough to call dessert. The mashed bananas in this recipe provide the moisture needed to hold the delicate almond flour together. Those bananas are also a good course of potassium, which is important for building and maintaining muscle, as well as managing blood pressure. 
Thank you so much for this recipe!! I am Norwegian and eating bread for multiple meals is part of our culture. I have not had too many problems with switching to a paleo diet but I have sorely missed eating bread. I have tried many gluten free and paleo bread recipes out there but this is by far the best one. I used 4 wide mouth canning jar lids and otherwise followed your recipe exactly and they came out nice and fluffy and even held up with “wet” sandwich ingredients . I am going to try some of the variations in the comments. Thank you for bringing back a vital part of my culture! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ye9x6AAcrUk
Arrowroot Starch: You may also see arrowroot starch labeled as arrowroot flour or arrowroot powder. It’s made from tubers traditionally from a plant called Maranta arundinacea, but commercially it’s often found as a mixture of various starches, including starch from the cassava root. Similar to tapioca starch, arrowroot starch is used in paleo baking to improve the texture of baked goods, lightening them up a bit, and help with browning.
Hey Deena, I also live in Kansas City and I’ve made this bread 2 times, also making it right now. The first time it came out perfect. The second time it didn’t rise as mush as the first but the bread was still better then any other. I always make sure the house is (hot) and everything is done by the stove 😉 I make it when no one is home but me… You can do it!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=baEZwX4imOc
Hey Maya!! This is the 2nd recipe I’ve tried off your website and again I love it!! Turned out really well. I can have sandwiches again or a quick piece Of toast when I’m in a hurry to get out the door. I was skeptical about the xanthan gum since I tried a recipe using psyllium husk powder. I did not like it. I can’t taste the xanthan gum so I have no problem using it going forward. Thanks again for the recipe!!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oi-920uV3UY
Interestingly, all of these seemingly unrelated diseases share a common cause: damage to the intestinal lining which allows large, undigested food particles to make their way into the body. This is called “leaky gut and the autoimmune response”. Here is a 7-part video series by Prof. Loren Cordain describing the etiology of Multiple Sclerosis. And please watch this TED talk by Dr. Terry Wahls, MD as she describes how she reversed her Multiple Sclerosis with a paleo diet. If you have an autoimmune disease you might consider trying the autoimmune protocol of the paleo diet. If you do, please tell us about your experience.
For immediate weight loss, Paleo is a great and healthy solution. But after carefully reading and considering, I’m unconvinced that Paleo is optimal for long-term health. I think, in fact, it might lead to heart disease and other ills associated with heavy meat consumption. Although many of Cordain’s theories fall apart long-term, I thoroughly enjoyed the read and highly recommend the book. You should read critically and decide for yourself.
We’re in a position to understand more of the benefits of the Paleo diet now that we have a basic understanding of which food sources are emphasized. One major benefit of the Paleo diet is an increased consumption of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and plant phytochemicals. Whole grains are not a good substitute for grass-produced or free-ranging meats, fruits, and veggies, as they contain no vitamin C, vitamin A, or vitamin B12. Many of the minerals and some of the B vitamins whole grains do contain are not absorbed efficiently by the body. The Paleo diet cuts out whole grains and replaces them with unprocessed, fresh foods.
The paleo diet (also nicknamed the caveman diet, primal diet, Stone Age diet, and hunter-gatherer diet) is hugely popular these days, and goes by one simple question: What would a caveman eat? Here, we explain what the paleo diet involves, its pros and cons, and, ultimately, what a modern person needs to know to decide whether or not to take the paleo diet plunge. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DrqWr0sMi30
Julian Bakery made Paleo Bread™ to fulfill the craving for bread while you are living a Paleo lifestyle free from processed foods. Paleo Bread utilizes the highest quality ingredients.  This bread provides the protein and fiber your body needs to satisfy hunger while helping your body to perform at its peak.  We love The Paleo Bread and hope you do too!
This is the third time I have made this bread. The first time I followed you directions and discovered the middle wasn’t quite baked all the way through. So I read some of the comments and tried it again. The second time I kept the oven temp the same and cut down on the butter and baked it for about 40-45 minutes. It turned out fine then. However it doesn’t that size of a loaf doesn’t last long in our house. So today I made it again and increased the recipe by half. I had bought a 12″ x 4.5″ x 3 ” bread loaf pan. I used 7 tbsp of Kerry Gold butter instead of 9 tbsp. Otherwise the rest was the same. I baked it at 355 degrees for 1 hour. It turned out perfectly. I couldn’t wait to let it cool too much. I love warm bread and just had to have a couple of slices. Btw- the organic almond flour I used was from our local grocery store health market section.
One larger randomized controlled trial followed 70 post-menopausal Swedish women with obesity for two years, who were placed on either a Paleo diet or a Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) diet. [7] The Paleo diet provided 30% of total calories from protein, 40% fat (from mostly monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats) and 30% carbohydrates. It included lean meats, fish, eggs, vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, avocado, and olive oil. The NNR diet provided less protein and fat but more carbohydrate with 15% protein, 25-30% fat, and 55-60% carbohydrates, including foods similar to the Paleo diet but also low-fat dairy products and high-fiber grains. Both groups significantly decreased fat mass and weight circumference at 6 and 24 months, with the Paleo diet producing greater fat loss at 6 months but not at 24 months. Triglyceride levels decreased more significantly with the Paleo diet at 6 and 24 months than the NNR diet.
As University of California-Davis food chemist Bruce German told Pollan in an interview, “You could not survive on wheat flour. But you can survive on bread.” Microbes start to digest the grains, breaking them down in ways that free up more of the healthful parts. If bread is compared to another method of cooking flour—basically making it into porridge—”bread is dramatically more nutritious,” says Pollan.

I just went through a big move and definitely got out of my paleo rhythm 🙁 I decided it was time to kick my butt back into it and scoured the web for a great paleo bread recipe. I found yours and it had so many great reviews so I had to give it a shot– I’m SO glad I did! I made this bread tonight and it’ turned out awesome! The taste is amazing and the texture is absolutely perfect! My roommates who aren’t paleo loved it so much as well! I can’t wait to try more of your recipes 🙂
My Low-Carb Cornbread recipe is made with 6 ingredients in a round cast-iron skillet. Although it tastes like cornbread, there isn’t a speck of corn in this bread. As I mentioned, I’ve been on a grain-free diet since 2001 and corn is not on the menu for me. We serve Cornbread at Thanksgiving each year, and throughout the year. Adults and children alike give this low-carb bread recipe a thumbs up!
Thank you for sharing this recipe, I made them in a 8 inch square baking dish and cut into 4, which worked great! I just bought a muffin top pan today and will be using that to make a double batch this weekend! Taste and texture of these are amazing! Just what I needed for sandwiches to take to work! NOW, I’m intrigued and will be trying your other recipes! Thanks again 🙂
I just stumbled upon your website today..perfect timing! I have been struggling with my first month of switching to the Paleo lifestyle. I love to cook, love to eat, and hate being restricted. Even though I very rarely crave pasta, grains, or dairy I was going a bit nutty because I’m now “not allowed” to have them. Your website has been a blessing. Already today I have made the silver dollar pancakes for breakfast, the Paleo bread for the rest of the week and have so many other recipes I can’t wait to try!
Wheat Belly: Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health by William Davis, MD. A renowned cardiologist explains how eliminating wheat from our diets can prevent fat storage, shrink unsightly "wheat belly" bulges, and reverse myriad health problems, like minor rashes and high blood sugar. The author contends that every single human will experience health improvement by giving up modern wheat. The book provides readers with a user-friendly, step-by-step plan to navigate a new, wheat-free lifestyle. Informed by cutting-edge science and nutrition, along with case studies from men and women who have experienced life-changing transformations in their health after waving goodbye to wheat. The author's blog. Published August 30, 2011.

Made this for the first time and after reading all the reviews about dense and not rising, decided to separate egg whites and yolks and whisk first the whites and then the yolks to increase volume, as one would for a sponge cake. Must confess to adding a pinch of cream of tartar to the whites, ( this is one of the ingredients in baking powder so shouldn’t upset the purists). I also only had almond meal ( trader joes) unblanched, and substituted fresh lime juice for the vinegar and used 1tbsp olive oil, didn’t have coconut oil. Once all three bowls were mixed thoroughly (1.whites, 2.yolks plus honey, oil and lime juice, and 3. dry ingredients whizzed tog. In processor,) gently fold all together, yolk mix into whites, then dry mix into egg mix . Put into oiled loaf pan and bake as directed……….it turned out just perfect and delicious……..looks like the picture only much darker because of the almond meal…..more like a whole wheat loaf would look…I am so pleased, the added step is worth the trouble, it rose to the top of the pan and very light and easy to slice.
I cannot adequately share my enthusiasm for this bread. I’m not much of a bread maker so the tips were very helpful. I went through the effort to get the recommended ingredients and the cost was well worth it. I’ll be making several loaves. I’ve only recently switched to a keto diet and have been disappointed over and over again when I try new recipes as replacements for my favorites. THIS WAS THE FIRST SUCCESS!! Tastes great. I dont question that its bread, no tricking myself to like it. Thank you so much! I can’t wait to try more of your recipes!
When a client following the Paleo diet comes in for a visit to discuss weight loss or other health issues, it's important for dietitians to use the opportunity to build rapport and trust even if they're not 100% on board. "Paleo practitioners are dedicated and committed to their beliefs," Taub-Dix says, "so taking an approach that just presents the negatives could turn them off from listening to your words of wisdom. Try to present the rationale behind how the diet could be followed but perhaps enhanced."
Arrowroot Starch: You may also see arrowroot starch labeled as arrowroot flour or arrowroot powder. It’s made from tubers traditionally from a plant called Maranta arundinacea, but commercially it’s often found as a mixture of various starches, including starch from the cassava root. Similar to tapioca starch, arrowroot starch is used in paleo baking to improve the texture of baked goods, lightening them up a bit, and help with browning.
By far my favorite bread recipe! It turned out golden brown with a great flavor! Super easy and basic ingredients so you don’t have to run to the supermarket before making it. I asked my husband (not paleo or gluten free) to taste it and he thought it was good. That’s quite a compliment because he dislikes most gluten free/paleo things. Just a note, I’m at 9300 feet above sea level and it still raised and turned out delicious! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDWirPJv8Qg
Traditional lemon bars are so good, but that sugar high comes with a subsequent crash. That’s not the case with this Paleo-friendly version. Using honey instead of refined sugar keeps things sweet without throwing your blood sugar out of whack, while using coconut flour in the crust makes it perfectly crunchy. Make an extra batch because these will go quickly.
I found this recipe after buying Paleo Bread at Wholefoods. It was SO bad that it drove me to find a good recipe to make my own. When I read the review that it wasn’t too eggy, I was sold. I am not a huge fan of eggs (too bad for someone attempting a primal diet) so I was set to try this. I followed the directions exactly…even taking extra time to beat the eggs. I used the yoghurt instead of coconut cream. It came out perfect. Thank you for making something edible and still Paleo. I tried to give this recipe 5 stars but it’s having a glitch and won’t let me. 5 stars!!!
This is a list of paleo diet meats allowed on the diet. Almost all meats are paleo by definition. Of course, you’ll want to stay away from highly processed meats and meats that are very high in fat (stuff like spam, hot dogs, and other low-quality meats), but if it used to moo, oink, or make some other sound, it’s almost certainly paleo (and, yes, that means you can still have bacon). Here’s the full list of paleo diet meats.
Begin by making your filling, this has a jam consistency. In a medium saucepan, combine raspberries, honey, lemon juice and lemon zest. Heat to a medium to medium high heat, until mixture begins to bubble. Let bubble for 1-2 minutes, then lower heat to a simmer. While simmering, be sure to mash the berries with a wooden spoon. Cook for an additional 2-3 minutes, remove from heat. Add in chia seeds. Let cool for 5-10 minutes before transferring to a glass jar or dish, and place in the fridge to cool completely. This will take about 1 hour, but you can also make the filling and let sit overnight.
Made this today, had a couple slices for a sandwich for lunch! My add-in spices was a Mediterranean spice blend that added a nice depth. I froze the rest for future sandwich cravings… thanks for an easy recipe with everything I have on hand! Oh, and I used 3/4 cup of dehydrated almond pulp from making milk, and 1/2 cup bob’s red mill gf flour instead of all almond flour!

I made your bread yesterday. You are right–it IS the best tasting keto bread yet! And I’ve made dozens of recipes through the years! I enlarged it–made a recipe and a half, and used a 9×5 glass pan. I confess, I did make a mess of it at one point. I used carton egg whites, and they didn’t do as well as fresh egg whites do. I ended up with a lot of foam on top and liquid on the bottom. I tried adding the dough to it, but had trouble smoothing out the many lumps. Soooo, I used my hand mixer to mix the whole mess. I put it in the pan and decided to just throw it out, thinking it could never turn into a good loaf of bread. But I went ahead and put it in the oven, and it turned out great! The rise was higher than any other almond flour bread I’ve ever made. So it’s obviously a very “forgivable” recipe. Many thanks!!
Making this homemade bread is easy and kid-friendly! Paleo bread is different from gluten free bread because often on the paleo diet most grains are avoided. So gluten-free breads made with gluten-free flours like rice flour, teff flour, and corn meal would not be considered paleo bread! I like using this  combination of almond flour and tapioca flour as it creates the most legit paleo bread, and gluten-free I’ve ever tried! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PsxZ6jsALk
Liza, I haven’t tried this recipe using cashew flour, but if you’ve had success using a 1:1 substitution for almond flour making other bread-type recipes, I think it could work! I also haven’t tried this recipe using coconut milk, but other readers have and said it works well. Yes, please let us know how it goes if you try it with these substitutions!
My yeast did bubble a whole lot! My house was 74-75 degrees. The bread did raise after 2 hrs about 1/2 size bigger. I had the bread rising on top of my oven which was on and oven door cracked open for more heat. Then put it in. Then after it cooked and came out of oven it sunk to original size. Then after it cooled all the way it sunk to shorter than it started out. 1 1/4” high. I have a picture but i cant send it in this review. Ask me more questions so i can figure this out ok. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQcFQOXVBm8

So, it’s my LAST DAY of the Whole30 (and perhaps yours, too!) the last day of January, and it’s time to welcome some Paleo treats back into my life.  And yours, of course.   It’s almost Valentines Day, right?!  And – maybe it’s just me – but I can’t do Valentines Day without my fair share of chocolate.   Luckily there are so many easy, deliciously indulgent chocolate recipes that taste classically rich but are made without any unhealthy ingredients.

Ugh! It’s been an hour and it doesn’t look like my bread has hardly risen at all. I haven’t made any substitutions, my yeast was good, etc. I currently live in Italy, so it’s plenty warm here today. I’ve now warmed my oven up a bit, turned it off, and have the dough in there to see if I can get any kind of rise out of it before trying to cook. Fingers crossed!
I am studying nutrition and, like you, understand that many foods labeled as paleo weren’t actually consumed by our paleolithic ancestors thousands of years ago. I guarantee elana knows that as well. Labeling a recipe paleo is an easy way to categorize posts so those eating a paleo, or grain and dairy free whole foods diet, know it’s for them. Hope that clears up some of your frustration and or misunderstanding about paleo recipes. enjoy! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f0XBm3SqTPE
×